Famous Co-op People through the Ages

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    This document has been made available in electronic format
         by the International Co-operative Alliance ICA 
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                         13 September 1995

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               FAMOUS CO-OP PEOPLE THROUGH THE AGES
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ACLAND, Alice / (circa 1880s) (England)

(Wife of Liberal Party leader Arthur Acland "who was from
first to last a firm friend of the Co-operative Movement").  In
an early article she wrote, "What are men always urged to do when
there is a co-op meeting? Come! Help! Vote! Criticize! Act! 
What are women urged to do? Come and Buy!"  One of the
founders of the Women's League for the Spread of Co-operation,
"to keep alive a most earnest appreciation of the value of
co-operation to ourselves, our children and our nation; and to
improve the conditions of same all over the country."  This
was formalized at the Annual (English) Co-operative Congress,
1883, as the Women's Co-operative Guild.


ALANNE, Vienno Serveri / 1878-1960 (Finland/US)

University Helsinki chemical engineer before becoming involved
in co-ops. Education Director Franklin County. Co-op Creamery,
Mlps; Organizer/Director Northern States Co-op League
(Northern MN, WI, MI).  Wide influence as educator-writer.
Played key role in victory of democratic forces against
communist take-over efforts in MN, 1925-26.  A director of
Co-op League of USA, 1925-40.  Major work, of great influence
through 1930s and '40s: "Fundamentals of Consumer
Co-operation", a rigorous/philosophic
analysis of the Rochdale Principles.


ALEXANDER, A. V. / 1885-___ (Eng)

Active in co-ops from 1908.  Became Secretary of Parliamentary
Committee of Cooperative Congress in 1920.  Member of
Parliament (Cooperative Party) 1922-29 and again in 1935. 
Held admiralty post 1929-31 and during WWII; became Minister
of Defense in 1945.  Wrote many articles on cooperation.


ALLEY, Rewi / 1897-1987 (NZ/China)

In 1938 one of the leaders in development of Chinese
Industrial Cooperatives (CIC).  More than 2000 organised to
replace factories destroyed by Japanese armies.  Referred to
in the US as "Indusco", laid the foundation for a new and
permanent form of cooperation in China, both before and after
the revolution.  It gave the nation a new battle cry of "gung
ho", which means "work together". Alley was a teacher and
headmaster of the Shandan Bailie School; writer of over 60
books.  Widely known for his work for New Zealand-China
Friendship Society.


ANDERSON, Carl Albert / 1892-1979 (Sweden)

Leading figure in Swedish and Int'l Co-op Movements as well as
Swedish public life. Chair of Stockholm City Cncl. 26 years.
Member then Chair. of Co-op Society of Stockholm 20 years.
Chr. of Kooperativa Forbundet 1957-65. Member ICA Central
Comm. and Chair of its Retail Comm., and for many years Chair
of Nordisk Andelsforbund. Organizer of 1957 Conference on
Self-Service Retailing, which led to permanent Auxiliary comm.
on Retail Distribution of ICA.


ARIZMENDI, Jose Maria / 1915-1976 (Basque)

A young priest concerned for education and employment in his
parish of Mondragon. With strong community support in 1943
opened the Zaragosa School of Engineering. Eleven students
graduated with honours in 1952. Five of these, working with
Arizmendi, launched first producer co-op, ULGOR, 1956. Since
then, many types of co-ops have been organised in Mondragon to
serve every need, employing many thousands of people, with
assets of millions of dollars, becoming a model worldwide. An
indefatigable worker, inspirational and challenging thinker,
reflected today in unique character of Mondragon Co-ops.
Opposed dictatorship of Franco, for which he was jailed in the
late 1930s.


ARNOLD, Mary Ellicott / 1876-1968 (US)

Field matron of the US Indian Bur. in Northern CA, 1908-10.
Story told "In the Land of the Grasshopper Song". Trained at
Cornell Univ. as a dietitian, she helped organize Consumers
Co-op Services (CCS) a chain of co-op cafeterias in NYC, for
which she served as Mgr. As a rep. of CCS she was a driving
force in establishment of Eastern Co-op League and Eastern
Co-op Wholesale. A dir. of Co-of League of USA 1927-38 and
1945-50; Treas. 1929-39. Instrumental in helping change League
from contribution-supported to dues paying organization. Left
NY area in 1937 to work for 3 years in the Extn. Dept. of St.
Francis Xavier Univ. in Nova Scotia. Concentrated on
development of co-op hsg., the account of which is told in
"The Story of Tompkinsville". In 1941, organized a CU and
other co-ops among Maine lobster fishermen, from which a film
was developed : "The Turn of the Tide".


ASHWORTH, Miles / (England)

First President of Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers and
father of Samuel Ashworth. An Owenite Socialist, was active in
stockbrokering as well as in textile manufacture.


ASHWORTH, Samuel (Son of Miles) / (England)

Probably youngest member of Rochdale Pioneers, was behind
counter when first store opened on Toad Lane, December 21,
1844.  Became Buyer-Mgr. of Rochdale Society.  Preserved in
co-ops for 22 successful years during which he helped launch
this "quiet revolution" throughout England.


BAKKEN, Henry Harrison / 1896-1987 (Fin/US)

Professor Meritorious at Univ. WI; Professor Agr. Econ..,
research/teaching; Research Assistant USDA Agr. Econ. Held
numerous interim appointments in the field of econ. with OPA,
FEA, Amer. Embassies and US army. Exchange Professor and
Lecturer in econ. in many countries. Author 17 books, best
known of which were: "Cooperation to the Finnish (history of
cooperatives in Finland, the Elanto Society, the Valio
Society)"; "Theory of Markets & Marketing and Economics of
Cooperative Marketing". 


BARNES, Alfred / 1887-___(England)

First President of London Cooperative Society; President of
Cooperative Party 1924-45; President of Cooperative Press from
1932. Elected Member of Parliament (Cooperative Party) 1922-31
and in 1935 and again in 1945.  Became Minister of Transport
in British Cabinet in 1945.


BEATON, Neil S. / ___-1960 (Scotland)

A shop assistant, trade union organiser, member St Cuthbert's
Co-op Society, Pres. Scottish Trades Union Congress 1919-19. 
>From 1919 on, a member/officer of Scottish Co-op Wholesale
Society, President from 1932-46.  In 1942 became President of
Congress of British Co-op Union. Member Exec. Comm. Int'l
co-op Alliance in 1946.  To him goes much of the credit for
development of retail co-op societies in the Highlands of
Scotland.


BEGIN, Louis Nazaire / 1840-1925 (Canada)

Archbishop of Quebec, appeared before the Legislature of
Quebec and heartily endorsed the proposed Quebec Syndicates
Act which would allow La Caisse Populaire de Levis and all
other credit societies of the province to incorporate and be
recognised as legal entities.  With this powerful support for
the work of Alphonse Desjardins, it was passed unanimously,
crucial to credit union development in Canada.


BERGENGREN, Roy F. / 1879-1955 (US)

This "Credit Union Crusader" was indefatigable, with unlimited
vision, the ideal partner chosen by Edward A. Filene to
develop, nurture, and spread the Credit Union concept across
the US. From the Nat'l Extn. Bur. established in Boston in
1921, with his background as a lawyer, he was able to secure
passage of laws in state after state, a task to which he
devoted himself for the next 13 years. During this period he
authored/edited a monthly magazine, "the Bridge", and the
first of four textbooks on organization/operation of Cus. By
1934 the CU Nat'l Assn. had come into being, with Bergengren
as Managing Dir., the post he held until his retirement in
1945. He undoubtedly did more than any other single person to
establish/develop credit unionism in the US, following
Desjardins' monumental efforts in Canada earlier in the
century. His work among farmers and fishermen in Nova Scotia
in 1932 (at Fr. Jimmy Tompkins' invitation), as well as
organizing the first CU in Welland, Ontario, repaid in small
measure the debt owed to the leadership of Desjardins.
Bergengren's story is told in his autobiography, "Crusade".
Inducted into Cooperative Hall of Fame in 1979.


BLAIS, Raymond / 1935- 1987 (Canada)

Member, late Fellow, of Corp. of Chartered Accountants from
1958.  From 1958-68 was tax collector at Dept. of Revenue
Canada and part-time lecturer at Laval Univ.
Coordinated/directed work of Fed. de Quebec des Unions
regionales des caisses populaires Desjardins 1968-73; Gen.
Mgr. at Union regionale de Quebec 1973-81; Pres. of
confederation des caisses populaire et d'economie Desjardins
du Quebec 1981-86 and Int'l Raiffeisen Union 1981-87.


BLANC, Louis / 1811-1882 (France)

Author, in the 1840s. of "The Organization of Labour"in which
he advocated the powerful idea of worker-owned productive
assns. Denouncing competitive capitalism, his Socialistic
doctrines of industrial organisation were directed (through
that book) to a much larger audience than merely his French
fellow citizens. All over Europe he encouraged people to
organize producer co-ops as a means by which they could raise
their living standards; "organizing to help themselves".


BONOW, Karl Daniel Mauritz / 1905-1982 (Sweden)
 Member Swedish delegation to ICA Congresses; Exec. Comm., UP,
then President ICA 1960-75. Promoted women's status throughout
co-op movement; defined and maintained ICA's crucial position
on membership (voluntary, democratic, politically neutral,
independent of government dictates) in struggle against
communist take-overs. Prolific writer, dedicated educator for
co-ops. His contribution to increased understanding between
member-organisations was fundamental to int'l unity within the
ranks.


BOWEN, Eugene R. / 1882-1974 (US)

Farm machinery executive 25 years. At age 53 became Exec.
Secy. of Co-op League of USA (1934-46). Instrumental in
bringing farm co-ops into League membership, helping rural and
urban co-ops to understand their mutual interests. He was one
of the first to state that consumers' cooperation included all
joint purchasing and production of goods and services, no
matter their nature, by ultimate users - whether by farmers of
anyone else. Was convinced that co-op education and business
activities should be together in the same organization, at
nat'l as well as at regional and local levels. Took steps to
awaken interest in co-ops among labor; religious, educational
and professional organizations and urged them to set up
programs to promote co-ops within their own groups. Editor of
League's magazine, Consumer Cooperation. On retirement from
the League, served as Econ. Research Dir. and Pres. of Nat'l
Co-op Mutual Hsg. Assn. His ultimate goal : "A Democratic
Cooperative Economy." Among his many books and pamphlets :
"The coming Cooperative Economy"; "Cooperation, The New Order
of the Ages"; "America's Answer : Consumer Cooperation".
Inducted into Cooperative Hall of Fame in 1978.


BRADSHAW, Sir William / 1887-___ (England)

Upon his retirement in 1945 as President since 1936 (a member
of the Bd. since 1921) of Co-op Wholesale Society of England,
he had completed 50 years of active cooperative service. Was
also a member of several committees of the Int'l Cooperative
Alliance.


BROT, Marcel, MD / 1887-1966 (France)

Physician who made vastly important contributions to the
well-being of people internationally by combining his
interests in medicine, co-ops and peace movements. From
1955-60, was a triple president: of Union of Cooperators of
Lorraine, of Nat'l Fed. of consumers' Co-ops of France, and of
ICA.


BROUKERE, Louis de / 1870-1951 (Belgium)

For 26 years a Professor at Brussels University where he held
Chair of Cooperation 1926-38.  Escaped to London when Nazis
overran his country, remaining until 1944. Later resigned his
post as Minister of State in protest against return of
Leopold. Served on Central Comm. of ICA for many years and was
one of those who kept it alive during WWII.


BUCHEY, Phillipe (circa 1835) (France)

>From theorizing on the value of mutual aid, advanced the cause
of workers' cooperative productive societies, where workers in
the same industry would be able to "exercise their calling"
under a management chosen by them and responsible to them. A
type of organisation that grew sporadically in France and
England throughout the 19th century.


CARLSON, Edward / 1887-___(Sweden/US)

One of the early supporters of Central States Cooperative
League, serving as a director and its Vice President for 10
years. Was an employee of Cooperative Trading, Waukegan IL for
about 25 years; also served as a director, Chair of Bd. and
President of Co-op Trading at various times in his career. A
strong advocate of co-op education, served on the Educ. Comm.
of the Co-op League of USA as well as Central States Co-op
League. Helped organize the Cooperative Unemployed League of
Lake County IL. Was one of the first members of Cooperative
Credit Union, Waukegan and on its board for 9 years. Was a
director of Co-op League of USA 1937-38 and filled and
unexpired term 1947-48.


CARTER, Samuel / 1859-___(Canada)

Born in England to a cooperative family, migrated to North
America in the 1870s and worked in America cotton industry. 
In 1880 moved to Guelph, Ontario, and opened a knitting mill. 
By 1890, was owner of Royal Knitting Mills Co.  During early
1900s was active in many community causes, among them the
Workingman's Co-op Assn. of Guelph, of which he was Pres.
Elected Mayor of Guelph 1914.  In 1909 was one of six
attenders at first Congress of Co-op Union of Canada and
became first Pres., continuing in that post until 1921.  Was
regarded during these years as "Canadian equivalent to Robert
Owen - a practical businessman with genuine concern for
working people and commitment to social reform."


COADY (Father/Monsignor) Moses Michael / 1882-1959 (Canada)

Ordained to the priesthood in 1910. Over his lifetime became
"The greatest figure in the fields of Canadian education and
cooperation". He was creator and first Dir. of Extn. Dept. of
St. Frances Xavier Univ. in Antigonish, Nova Scotia. With his
cousin Father Jimmy Tompkins and A. B. MacDonald (both already
well-known rural educators), they developed what became known
as "the Antigonish Movement" that brought together
impoverished, under-educated people in "kitchen meetings" to
learn to read, think about causes of their poverty, and act
together to solve their problems. Out of these study clubs
came a variety of socioeconomic endeavors based on co-op
philosophy and practice. From this solid underpinning of
experience, the Univ. Bd. of Governors in 1959 established the
Coady Int'l Inst. as a full department of the Univ. The goal
was to provide a training centre where representatives from
Third World Countries could come to study ways and means for
bringing social and economic change to their nations. Coady
was author of many books and pamphlets, among them, "Masters
of Their Own Destiny" and "The Man from Margaree - with
commentary by Alex Laidlaw".


COHN, Hymsn I. / 1870-1941 (Rus/US)

A pioneer in the Amer. co-op movement and one of the
organizers of the Cooperative League of America in 1916
(forerunner of the Cooperative League of the USA and the Nat'l
Cooperative Business Assn). Actively promoted co-ops from time
of his arrival in the US in 1895. In 1909 he was Pres. of a
group incorporated as the Cooperative League.  They
successfully ran a few small co-ops but were unsuccessful in
interesting other co-ops to join them, and that League was
dissolved in 1914. Not easily discouraged, he urged
like-minded friends to form a "propaganda" co-op to educ.
people regarding what co-ops really were.  They organised
Consumers' Cooperative Union, hoping to federate all existing
co-ops, as the English had done. He and Albert Sonnichsen then
approached Dr. Warbasse and convinced him the value of co-ops
as a means of solving econ. problems. Warbasse called a
meeting of his friends to hear their idea and out of it came
the Cooperative League of America. A dir. of the League
1916-20. Continued his interest in cooperatives until his
death on the 25th anniversary of the founding of the League. 


COLE, George Douglas Howard / 1889-1959 (England)

A Fabian/Guild Socialist. Active in the Labour Movement. 
Chichele Professor of Social & Political Thought at Oxford
College. A journalist and popular political writer. Teacher at
Workers' Educ. Assn. Believed the true socialist
philosophy-movement must be int'l, and that political
democracy was incomplete without industrial democracy. Sought
to restore to workers more meaning for their lives and a
greater sense of belonging and control.  In 1945 published a
definitive history of co-op development in Great Britain: "A
Century of Cooperation", and in 1951 "The British Cooperative
Movement in a Socialist Economy".


COOPER, William / 1822-1868 (England)

First cashier of Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers. "The
newsman of cooperation," with a passion for dispensing
information in response to inquiries about co-ops. Unwearied
in writing letters; always willing to speak on platforms in
advocacy of cooperation and the needs of labouring people.


COWDEN, Howard A. / 1893-1972 (US)

Entered the vocational world as a High School teacher, then
moved on to become a fieldman for MO Farmers Assn. Leavin MFA
in 1929, with a few friends he established the Union Oil Co.
in Kansas City, to serve as a wholesale for farm supply co-ops
in surrounding mid-western states. In 1934 changed its name to
Consumers Cooperative Assn. (CCA) (later becoming Farmland
Industries) and expanded its services in upward integration
from creation of products neede on the farm, to
purchasing/managing oil refineries and ownership of oil wells.
Pres./Gen. Mgr. from CCA's inception until his retirement in
1961. One of the founders of Nat'l Co-ops, a central agency
through which member co-ops could purchase their supplies.
Took leadership and major role through ICA in development of
Int'l trade, especially the Int'l Cooperative Petroleum Assn,
incorporated under DC Co-op Law in 1947. Served on ICA Cent.
Comm. for many years. In 1950 St. Francis Xavier Univ. at
Antigonish bestowed honorary Doctor of Laws degree. Inducted
into Cooperative Hall of Fame in 1976.


DAVIDOVIC, George / 1901-1988 (Canada)

Born in Serbia, graduate studies in Switzerland, returning
home to take an active role in co-op movement : organizing,
lecturing, writing. Became General Secretary. of Co-op Union
of Yugoslavia. Taught co-ops at Belgrade School of Economies,
editing for 10 years the journal Economic and Financial Life.
Defending independence and democratic character of co-ops both
against Nazi occupation and new communist regime, his life was
endangered. Former students assisted his escape to
Switzerland. Moved to England and from 1958-62 was Secy. for
Farm Co-ops at ICA. In 1962 moved to Ottawa as Research. Dir.
for Co-op Union of Canada. Lecturer at Coady Int'I Inst.,
author of "Towards the Cooperative World-Economically,
Socially, Politically", translated into four languages.


DAVIDSON, John M. (Scotland)

President of Kinning Park Co-op Society (wich became part of
the larger Glasgow South Society). Dir. and Pres. of Scotish
Co-op Wholesale Society. Pres. in 1955 of British Co-op
Congress.


DAVIES, (Margaret) Llewellyn / 1862-1944 (England)

In 1889 became Gen. Secy. of English Women's Co-op Guild,
infusing new vigor into its work in the posst which she held
until 1931. That year she helped organize Int'l Women's Guild
in Switzerland. In 1902, with full support of Co-op Union and
the Loan Society, she and other women became personally
responsible for the management of a co-op store in Sutherland.
Conducted as a People's Store, its display of wholesome food
in more readily usable quantities at easily affordable prices,
made this half retail shop/half social culb a welcome and
enlightening experiment for the area women. In 1922 she was
first woman ever to preside over an ICA Congress, held in
Brighton that year. In 1945, Co-op Union of England
established in her honor a Foundation for the Co-op College,
Holyoake House in England.


DEBOYVE, Edouard  (France)

Lifelong int'l cooperator who made many contributions still
important today. At British Co-op Congress in Plymouth 1886,
his proposal to establish permanent int'l co-op relations
culminated in formalization of Int'l Co-op relations
culminated in formalization of Int'l Co-op Alliance at the
1895 Congress in London.


DEJARDINS, Dorimene / 1858-1932 (Canada)

Wife of Alphonse Desjardins, first woman in North America to
know about and work in a credit union. In addition to raising
their 6 children, she carried full responsibility for daily
operations of La Caisse Populaire de Levis the six months of
every year that Alphonse worked in Quebec or in Ottawa; also 
she replaced Alphonse while he was on long journeys and during
his two lengthy, physically-incapacitating illnesses. Without
her faithful service, that first CU, which transformed the
parish of Levis and altered the continent, could not have been
successful. After the death of Alphonse, she participated in
organization of Union regionale des Caisses populaires de
Quebec in 1921.


DESJARDINS, Alphonse / 1854-1920 (Canada)

>From 1879-1890, transcribed verbatim and published debates of
Quebec Parliament. From 1891 to 1915 held similar position in
House of Commons, Ottawa. Learned about co-ops and credit
unions from their development in Germany. Immediately came to
believe this form of organization, where people could work
together to tackle their problems, especially in the field of
finance, should be tried out among the low-income families in
his province of Quebec. By combining educ. with inspiration,
he brought together a group to form La Caisse Populaire de
Levis (The Peoples' Bank of levis) in Levis near Quebec City.
Organized to operate out of his home, in 1901, it was the
first Credit Union on the North American Continent. Under his
leadership, other credit unions came into being across Canada.
His parliamentary experience gave him procedural knowledge
useful in securing passage of legislation that would permit
their chartering. He was invited to come to the US and with
his help the first US credit union, St. Mary's Co-op Credit
Assn., was established at Manchester, NH. At the request of
Pierre Jay, Commissioner of Bank in Massachusetts, Desjardins
played a key role in enactment of the first general statute
for organizing credit unions in that State. Of all tributes to
his service to people (he never earned more than 2000
dollars/year), most cherished was Commander of the Order of
St. Gregorz, bestowed by the Pope himself, calling Desjardins
to Rome to accept the honor. His basic book : The Cooperative
People's Bank.


DEVERICK, Barbara / 1925-1989 (US)

Co-op Affairs Advisor for Blue Ridge Electric Membership
Corporation, Lenoir NC; past Chairwoman of National Co-op
Business Association and os Overseas Co-op Development
Committee. She served on Boards of Directors. of Co-op
Development Foundation, National Electric Co-op International
Foundation. and NC Co-op Development Council. Member of
Central Committee of ICA and ICA's Women's Committee Worked
tirelessly to promote co-op management, development and
planning for co-ops and provided leadership for local,
national and international organizations. Inducted into
Cooperative Hall of Fame 1989.


DIGBY Margaret / 1900-1985 (England)  

Writer of books and articles for co-ops "who underlined the
fact that producers and consumers are interdependent, but when
it comes to a question of the just price, the opposition
between these two factors remains complete." Philosopher,
writer, teacher. Carried out research, consultancy, and
advisory projects, drafted co-op laws, set up training courses
and lectured worldwide. Lifelong member of Labour Party.
Worked for 50 years for Plunkett Fndtn., was eventually made
honorary Trustee.


DUTTWEILER, Gottlieb / 1888-1962 (Switzerland)

Inherited his interest in retailing : father was a dir. of
Zurich Consumer Co-op, later to become "Dutti's" bitterest
commercial enemy. Apprenticed at 17 to a wholesale grocer, he
later had a brief successful fling as coffee planter in
Brazil. Returning to Switzerland in 1925, together with his
wife Adele, they founded and guided Migros (which in 1941 they
turned into a Cooperative) on strong moral principles which
included setting aside a percentage of profits for
cultural/social purposes; never selling anything harmful to
people or environment ; ensuring that co-op members enjoyed
full democratic participation. (Duttweiler never took a salary
greater than that paid his managers.) They gave preference to
suppliers who held similar principles. "Dutti" was
exceptionally imaginative and skillful in circumventing
jealous competitors and always, ultimately, found better ways
to serve more people through cooperative means.


FAUQUET, Georges / 1883-1953 (France)

An eminent co-op theorist best known for his principal work,
the Cooperative Sector. Served not only French co-ops but also
ICA  from 1921 until his death. Head of Technical Section of
Int'l Labour Organization dealing with Co-op Affairs. Planned
and had begun to write the (Jubilee) History of ICA but was
unable to continue due to failing health. At 4th congress of
Paris, marking ICA's 60th year, the award of the ICA Jubilee
Triennial Prize was made posthumously for his works on
cooperation.


FILENE, Edward A. / 1860-1937 (US)

>From his base as owner of the Filene Stores in Boston, he gave
his deep concern for democratic processes, his business acumen
and a good share of his wealth to the creation of institutions
which would better serve the needs of society. While traveling
in India in 1907, he was impressed with the credit society
idea which had been brought to that nation from Europe.
Returning to the States, he took steps to learn more about
this concept and was soon involved in establishing, with help
from Desjardins, the CU idea in his home State of MA. In 1921
he invited Roy F. Bergengren to take responsibility for
organizing Cus across the US, working from the CU nat'l Extn.
Bur. that was established that same year in Boston. For the
remainder of his life, he gave freely of his time and money to
the credit union "cause". In addition, he became interested in
development of other types of co-ops, and directed the Edward
A. Filene Good Will Fund, Inc. to conduct research into
health, econ. and social problems and inquire about their
cooperative solutions. These studies led to the creation of
the Consumer Distribution Co-op, responsible for providing
technical aid to consumer co-op stores and creating a chain of
co-op department stores. He operated across the spectrum :
founded the Chamber of Commerce, supported the concept of an
institutionalized Social Security and helped organize the
League to Enforce Peace, which later became the League of
Nations. Induted into the Cooperative Hall of Fame in 1976.


FOURIER, (Francois Marie) / 1772-1837 (France)

Contribution to French co-ops considered similar to that of
Warbasse in the US. His lifelong emphasis was on necessity for
voluntary, self-supporting, cooperation among people living
harmoniously in self-sufficient communities called phalanxes
or "phalansteres" - a highly utopian concept which he foresaw
as eventually eliminating need for political governing
authority. Although there was little response in France, he
was influential in England and America through 1856 and in the
Israeli kibbutzim of the 1900s. Charles Gide considered him
one ef the fathers of the idea of cooperation, along with
Robert Owen. Fourier's newspaper (1830s/'40s over the years le
Phalanstere; then la  Phalange; finally, la Democratie
Pacifique) was influential for  its antimilitarism as well as
for cooperativism.


FOWLER, Henry L. (Harry) / 1876-1980 (Canada)

Manager of an oil distribution co-op in Saskatchewan during
the 1930s, his name inseparably linked to development of the
co-op movement in that province. Played a role in organizing
world's first co-op oil refinery which came into production in
1935 - the only refinery of any size owned entirely by
Canadians. He was active in organization of 14 more co-ops :
one of the original incorporators of 11, director of 16,
manager of 5, president of 11, including Interprovincial
Co-ops. Among these were several of the largest in the
province. Co-op career culminated in election as Pres. of
Federated Co-ops from which post he retired in 1963. in 1966,
the Univ. of Saskatchewan bestowed upon him honorary degree of
Doctor of Laws. Inducted into Sask. Hall of Fame on day of his
demise, August 10, 1980.


FRANKLIN, Benjamin / 1706-1790 (US)


Amer. statesman, scientist, inventor, writer. From experiences
with fire losses, he and his neighbors  had first organized a
fund under the name of the Union Fire Company in 1750 to cover
possible burn-outs. The idea grew to include the concept of
ins. and in 1752 the Philadelphia Contributionship for the
Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire was organized - the
oldest fire ins. company and oldest operating co-op in the
nation. From this principle of mutual aid, a climate was
prepared that would lead to further experimenttion in the
field of co-op endeavor - people joining to help one another
meet social and economic needs. As a signer of the Declaration
of Independence, his promotion of mutual ins. in the US helped
create a nat'l climate in which co-ops were encourages.
Inducted into the Cooperative Hall of Fame in 1987.


FREUNDLICH, Emmy / 1878-1948 (Austria)

Active in furthering cooperation in her own country, she
served for many years, beginning in 1921, as Pres. of Int'l
Co-op Women's Guild. During WWI, represented Co-op Movement on
various govt. food committees. After creation of the new
Austria, became Dir. of Ministry of Food, in which position
she was able to relieve terrible suffering. Collaborating in
work of League of Nations in Geneva, she was a govt.
representative to the Int'l Econ. Conference of 1927. Well
known at UN after she moved to New York as a consultant for
Int'l. Co-op Women's Guild. 

GALLAGHER, Patrick / 1871-19___ (Ireland)

Became aware of co-ops while working in Scotland. Returning
home, organized Templecrone Co-op in Dunloe, County Donegal
1906. Pres./Mgr. the first 40 + years. Became so completely
identified with the co-op ("cope") that he has been known
world wide by that name. Autobiography, Paddy The Cope, a
humorous recounting of his experiences, details co-op growth
in Ireland.


GANDHI, Mohandas K. / 1869-1948 (India)

Lawyer, Hindu religious leader, nationalist (who led India to
political independence from Great Britain), social reformer
who lived what he taught/practiced what he preached; strong
supporter/teacher/exemplar of co-ops in all social/economic
aspects of life. Educ., ethics (constant/continuing), he
considered both paramout and fundamental to sound growth of
co-ops.


GANLEY, Mrs. G. S. (England)

>From 1921-46 served as member, then Pres., of London Co-op
Society (at the time, world's largest retail co-op) before
being elected to House of Commons as member of the Cooperative
Party in 1945. Also London Cnty. Cncl., Battersea Borough
Cncl., Standing Joint Comm. fo Working Women's Organizations,
and London Cnty. Cncl. Educ. Comm. Served on Labour Party
exec. comm. many years and was VP 1921-23. Active in co-op
affairs from 1906. In 1920 became one of the first women JPs
in England.


GEBHARD, Hannes / 1864-1933 (Finland)

Professor at Univ. Helsinki, he exerted perhaps more influence
than anyone else in development of the Finnish Co-op Movement.
Pres. of Pellervo, the Fed. of Finnish Co-ops, for 18 years;
long-time Management Dir. of Cent. Inst. of Co-op Credit
Banks. Brought Finnish Co-op Movement into ICA through
Pellervo's application in 1902.


GIRARDIN, Emile / 1895 -1982 (Canada)

Educator, teacher, headmaster, working for Commission of
Catholic Schools in Montreal - 1913-60 Founder/Mgr. of Caisse
populaire Sainte-Clotilde de Montreal 1919-34; Admin. 1926-34,
Secy. 1934-54, Mgr. 1934-63 and Pres. 1954-71 of Union
regionale de Montreal; Admin. 1954-55, Vic Pres. 1955-59 and
Pres. 1959-72 of Fed. de Quebec des Unions regionales des
caisses populaires Desjardins; Admin. of Desjardins Life
Assurance Co. 1955-73. Bd. member of Int'l. Savings Banks
Inst. 1960-70; Admin. of Montreal Chamber of Commerce 1967-72.
Companion of the Order of Canada 1969.


GJORES, Axel / Circa : 1920s-1950s (Sweden)

A leader in co-ops, serving as Gen. Secretary of Kooperativa
Forbundet (KF) and on Exec. Comm. ICA for many years, Minister
of Supply in Swedish Govt. Having studied co-op movements in
other countries, he, with others, developed the concept of
Study Groups, or "The Groups" as they became known - where
people would gather to discuss social and econ. problems,
selecting topics from material sent to them from KF. Included
were three "Capital Questions" to be answered at the end of
each session the replies to be sent to KF's Educ. Dept. for
correction. Author of Cooperatives in Sweden.


GLEN, A. Rod / 1919-1980 (Canada)

Newspaper man, trade union officer, municipal official, credit
union pioneer, co-op innovator, Pres. of Nanaimo (BC) Credit
Union, Pres, of provincial movement. In 1959, spearheaded
chartering of Mid-island Consumer Co-op Services (Hub) to
serve
CU members. With Glen as Pres., using Direct Charge System, it
soon became second largest co-op food retailer in Canada, with
other goods and services added later. In 1960 he was first
non-USA citizen to be elected Pres. of CUNA Int'l. Helped
found Canadian Co-op Credit Society, uniting CU efforts across
the entire country.


GOEDHEART, G.J.D.C. / 1857-1945 (Netherlands)

Beloved member/leader of Netherlands Co-ops for 63 years,
helping to unify them. Pres. of Netherlands Co-op Union, joint
editor of Cooperative News and author of a history of co-op
movement in his country. As pres. ICA 1921-27, he conducted
its sessions in three languages other than his own.


GOOD, William C. / 1876-1967 (Canada)

>From 1909 a close friend of George Keen, he was one of the
founders of Co-op Union of Canada (CUC). An important agrarian
leader in Canada, helping organize in 1914 the United Farmers
Co-op. In 1915 became VP of CUC; 1916, participated in forming
Brant Farmers Co-op. In 1921, followed Samuel Carter as Pres.
of CUC. Soon after, elected as Progressive Member of
Parliament. In 1943 read a paper (written by George Keen) to
House of Commons Comm. on Reconstruction & Rehabilitation,
calling for strong co-op role in shaping the post-war world,
later printed and widely circulated. Resigning from presidency
in 1944, next year was named Honorary Pres., continuing as
advisor/speaker until his death.


GREENWOOD, Abraham / 1824-1911 (England)

Author of the plan for the Co-op Wholesale Society of England
and its first Pres., 1863. First CWS Manager, 1874-1989.


GREY, (the Earl) Albert (England)

Governor General of Dominion of Canada. Came personally,
informally, to home/office of La Caisse Populaire de Levis to
have long conversation with Desjardins and carefully examine
records of the organization. So impressed that he personally
spoke in support of the bill before the Parliamentary Comm. in
Ottawa studying the enabling legislation which would permit
CUs to be organized across all of Canada. Passed unanimously.


GRUNDTVIG, Bishop Nikolai Frederik Severin / 1783-1872
(Denmark)

The Danish religious leader remembered worldwide for bringing
his countrymen from depths of degrading poverty/defeat/despair
in 1864 to become the most politically/economically
democratized/cooperatized nation in the world. Recognized for
his promotion of the Folk School concept : students and
teachers living/working together in a community setting to
study and explore ways to solve their social and economic
problems; pride in cooperation. From this philosophy grew the
Danish People's High Schools and from them a cadre of young
people who became leaders in developing the co-op movement in
Denmark - a world model.


HALL, Fred / 1866-1938 (England)

Leading English educator in field of cooperation. Professor
and Principal of the Co-op College, Holyoake House,
Manchester. Author of Handbook for Members of Co-op
Committees; joint author with W.P. Watkins of "Cooperation",
chief English textbook on co-ops. Also published "Sunnyside",
a story for children embodying principles of cooperation.


HALONEN, George / 1891-1954 (Fin/US)

After attending the univ. in Helsinki, he came to America at
the age of 21. In 1925 he was named Educ. Dir. of Central
Co-ops in Superior WI and was the first editor of Cooperative
Pyramid Builder. He bore the brunt of the bitter communist
attack on Central Co-ops 1926-31 but succeeded, with other
strong cooperators, in rejecting those who would use the
Cooperative Wholesale as a communist party tool, and with his
fellows upheld the principle of political neutrality, staying
with Central Co-ops until 1942. He was a dir. of the
Cooperative League of the US 1930-38 and was one of the
promoters of rural electrification in the Lake Superior area.


HAYES, Alvar John / 1896-1955 (Fin/US)

Native of Finland, came early to US and after WW I became
interested in co-ops. Educ. Dir. Central Cooperative Wholesale
(CCW), 1935-38; Gen. Mgr. of CCW 1938-48. In 1941 became Chr.
of Bd. of Nat'l Co-ops a post held until 1946 when he became
Pres. and served there util 1948, after which he was Research
Dir. and advisor for local co-ops until 1952. A dir. of Co-op
League of US 1943-46.


HAYWARD, Sir Fred / 1876-1944 (England)

Founder, Secy. and Mgr. for many years of Burselm (England)
Co-op Society established in 1907. Chairman of Central Board
of Co-op Union almost continuously 1918-44. Twice President of
Co-op Congress. In 1931, became member of Central Committee
and of Executive Committee of ICAHEDBERG, Anders / 1881-1985
(Sweden).


HEDBERG, Anders / 1881-1985 (Sweden)

Left promising military career to become a cooperator. In 1920
he was leading theorist of Sweden's Kooperativa Forbundet
(KF). Union. His early, major, concern for the co-op was to
find a practical system of production for Int'l co-op trade.
His careful research and educ. of co-ps in Scandinavia led in
1931 to establishment of Nordisk Andelsforbund (a 5-country
Scandinavian Wholesale Society). As a member of this joint
effort, the North European Luma Co-op Society was established
as first internationally-owned/operated co-op factory. It
broke the iron grip of Phoebus Cartel which had for years been
stifling Swedish enterprise. Author of "Luma" and
"International Wholesale Cooperation", translated into three
languages.


HERRING, Louise McCarren / 1909-1987 (US)

Invited by Filene to participate in historic 1934 Estes Park
(CO) meetings that organized CUNA, she later became Managing
Director of OH CU League, 1936-45, and helped organize over
500 CUs throughout her career. "The mother of credit unions"
remained active and until her death served as Pres. of
Cincinnati Communicating Arts CU, Treas. of Cincinnati Central
CU, and in other co-op endeavors. Inducted into Cooperative
Hall of Fame 1983.


HOLYOAKE, George Jacob / 1817-1906 (England)

Fighter for freedom of religious opinion and for a free press;
a propagandist for Rochdale Cooperation. By 1851, 150
societies were operating throughout England and Scotland. From
1885, as a member of the British Co-op Union, an active
representative of his organization and his country in various
Nat'l Co-op Congresses, worked constantly toward eventual
organization of the Int'l Co-op Alliance (ICA). He was one of
the signers when it was finally established in London in 1895.
His "History of the Rochdale Pioneers" in 1856 was quoted
extensively by cooperators in a number of countries as the
authority, and provided the principles by which the ICA was to
be guided. In respect for his great contributions,
headquarters of the British Co-op Union in Manchester was
named Holyoake House.


HOWARTH, Charles / 1818-1868 (England)

Among the 28 founders of Rochdale Society of Equitable
Pioneers, credited with having formulated 7 Rochdale
Principles and 6 Rochdale Aims by which co-ops across the
world have since governed themselves.


HUBER, Victor Aime / 1800-1869 (Germany)

Frequently referred to as the designer of the forerunner of
consumer cooperation and co-op housing societies in Germany.
Created an atmosphere of thought which lighted the way for
Raiffeisen and Schulze-Delitsch. Author of "What a Loan Union
Can Accomplish" and "Credit Unions and Loan Unions."


HUMPHREY, Hubert H. / 1911-1978 (US)

Mayor of Minneapolis, US Senator from MN, VP to Lyndon
Johnson. Staunch friend and legislative ally of co-ops.
Humphrey Amendment to Foreign Assistance Act (1961) encouraged
co-op development overseas. 1973 received National Co-op
Statesmanship Award; 1978 posthumously inducted into
Cooperative Hall of Fame.


JACOBSON, Dorothy Huston /1907-1985 (US)

Teacher and professor of Econ. in Twin Cities, MN. Callet to
WI to help prepare legislation that would mandate teaching of
co-ops in all state schools. Wrote a textbook on the subject.
In 1938 helped husband George Jacobson organize Group Health
Mutual Ins. Co. in St Paul. Was Asst Secy. of Agr. for Int'l
Affairs under Orville Freeman; helped initiate Food for Peace
Program; was US representative to UN Food & Agr. Inducted ino
Cooperative Hall of Fame 1982


JACOBSON, George / 1900-1988 (US)

Gave up early career as a teacher to devote his time to
co-ops. Worked for Northern States Co-op League, organizing
co-ops in MN and WI. In 1930 joined Midland Co-op Wholesale as
Fieldman, and became its Assistant General Manager in 1935.
With wife his Dorothy, he organized Group Health Mutual
Insurance Company in St Paul MN in 1938. Helped organize Group
Health Assn. of America in 1946. In 1962 joined USAID in
Washington DC where he facilitated formation of hundreds of
CUs and co-ops in Latin America. From June 1935 throughout his
life, was member/ officer/ director of many organizations,
including Co-op League of the US and in 1982 he and Dorothy
were jointly inducted into Cooperative Hall of Fame - first
husband/wife team so honored.


JAEGGI, Bernhardt / 1869-1944 (Switzerland)

Assisted in founding Freidorf Village, just outside of Basle,
as residential community for employees of Co-op Society of
Basle. In 1921 took lead in establishing a co-op "college" at
Freidorf and was its first director; later, the first co-op
vacation home in Switzerland, on Lake Lucerne. Long-time Pres.
of Fed. of Swiss Consumer Societies; member Cent. Comm. and
Exec. Comm. of ICA. Formulated five key rules for co-ops :
Constantly improve & expand; keep each member actively
identified with ownership; remain decentralized for member
educ. and management; special purpose societies for production
rather than the wholesales, in which the wholesale would have
joint ownership; keep co-ops politically neutral.


JOHANSSON, Albin / 1886-1968 (Sweden)

Pioneer co-op leader who played outstanding role in later
development of Kooperativa Forbundet (KF) - The Co-op Union
and wholesale Society of Sweden, founded in 1899. Became its
Managing Dir. in 1924. With colleague Anders Hedberg, led in
organizing Nordisk Andelsforbund, the Scandinavian Co-op
Wholesale Society made up of the Cooperative Wholesales of
Denmark, Norway, Finland and Sweden, particularly noted for
the manner in which they joined to break the (in) famous
Phoebus Cartel (of which General Electric was a part in
monopolizing and setting the price for electric light bulbs
throughout Scandinavia). Was VP of ICA, Chr. of Int'l Co-op
Trading Agency, and first Chr. of Bd. of Int'l Co-op Petrol
Association.


KAGAWA, Toyohiko / 1888-1960 (Japan)

Educator, social reformer, organizer, labor and co-op leader
who early left wealthy home and family to live, work and die
among the poorest of the poor. Opened an eating co-op (the
Heavenly Shop) in slums of Kobe 1912; in 1917 a toothbrush
factory in Shinkawa; a co-op food store at Osaka; in 1928 the
Nakanogo CU. From 1931 on, active in establishing medical
co-ops, though heavily opposed by traditional medical
societies. Then a chicken-raising co-op, and four kinds of
insurance programs, local and national. In 1946 organized an
all-Japan Fed. of Co-ops. As a Christian, considered co-ops
the natural expression of brotherhood economics. 1914-16,
studied for/received Bachelor of Divinity Degree from
Princeton Univ.; traveled and lectured across the US; again in
1924-25, and in 1935-36. In the latter tour he spoke to
audiences that totaled into the thousands - inspiring them to
consider and organize co-ops as a way of dealing with the
worldwide financial depression and developing a new and more
ethical economic order. Author of more than 100 books and
innumerable pamphlets and articles. Best known : "Brotherhood
Economics", and "Love, the Law of Life". The story of his life
has recently been recorded by Robert Schildgen in Toyohiko
Kagawa - Apostle of Love and Social Justice.


KANZAN, Abraham E. / 1889-1971 (Russia/US)

Came from native Russia in 1904. In mid-1930s, while manager
of Amalgamated Clothing Workers CU, organized first
Amalgamaded Houses in Bronx, occupied by 303 worker-families
who pooled resources to form co-op hsg. development. Called
"Father of US Housing Co-ops," for by 1971 over 100,000 vere
living in homes built by his efforts to create best possible
housing at lowest possible cost for families of moderate
means. Ultimate goal : "A better society which could be
archieved by people helping themselves through cooperation."
Pres. of United Housing Foundation and President of Co-op City
in NY which he helped to devise, that became world's largest 
hsg. development whether cooperatively or privately owned.
Inducted into Cooperative Hall of Fame 1976.


KEEN, George / 1869-1953 (England/Canada)

Believing that the Industrial Revolution had led to
arrangements that resulted in an unfair distribution of goods
between owners and workers, he saw a solution in the co-op
movement. His model/inspiration was George Holyoake.
Immigrated to Canada in 1904. Pres. of Brantford (Ont.) Co-op
Assn., and chief founder, in 1909, of the Co-op Union of
Canada; its Gen. Secy/treas, 1909-45. Founder of the Canadian
Cooperator and its editor from inception to 1947. Concerned to
extend and strengthen co-ops from coast to coast, and when
free rail passes were made avilable in 1924, he was able to
visit western prairie farmers and fishermen and farmers in
Nova Scotia at frequent intervals. On one of these trips he
met and greatly influenced Father Jimmy Tompkins. As Pres. of
Workers Educ. Association, Ontario, 1933-34 he assisted study
groups by writing pamphlets for them and for the Antigonish
Movement. Contributed a weekly broadcast on co-ops to Radio
WCLF in Chicago a powerful station heard from Ontario to
Saskatchewan. To him co-ops were "a great social religion" -
people helping people.


KENDALL, Eric / 1908-1979 (Finland/US)

Born in Finland, came to US in 1915; worked all his life for
co-ops. Editor of "The Builder", newspaper of Cent. Co-op
Wholesale (CCW) in Superior WI. Later editor of Midland
Co-op's publications when CCW merged with Midland. A Director
and President of Co-op Editorial Association of Am. In early
days of CCW, Kendall was active in helping CCW prevent a
take-over effort by communists in northern MN. And to preserve
ties with the Cooperative League of the US. 

KING, William, MD / 1786-1865 (England)

Spent his life ministering to ailments of the poor but worked
to abolish poverty which caused anguish and disease. English
exponent of consumer cooperation in pre-Rochdale days and
throughout his life. Urged English workingmen to own their
factories and stores. His influence extended over the whole of
the nat'l movement. Was most instrumental in Brighton
"Provident and District" Society (self-help project); in
development of Infants School for Children Under 6; British
School of Industry; the Mechanics' Institute. In the latter he
became a determined advocate of rights of artisans to culture
and ability to be educated. This was a significant phase in
development of his co-op ideas. The Brighton Co-op Society was
formed by members of Mechanics Inst. Founded and edited
Brighton Cooperator, 1828-30. He thought of the small food
store as a basis for practicing econ. democracy and for
developing the spirit of cooperation. Influence felt across
the entire country and it was from his ideas that the Rochdale
Pioneers drew their inspiration and practices.


KINGSLEY, Charles / 1819-1875 (England)

Clergyman and novelist; professor of modern history,
Cambridge; chaplain to Queen Victoria. Concerned with econ.
and social injustice brought on by the Industrial Revolution.
A Christian Socialist, he took every opportunity to make
Christ's message known both to encourage the downtrodden to
stand up for their rights and the wealthy factory owners to
temper their greed and behave more humanely to their
employees. Ardent labor organizer; leader in the Magna Carta
of Cooperation (which received Royal Assent in 1852). The
"twins," Cooperation and Democracy, were major themes in all
his work. Author of many books, best known being "Westward Ho
!" and "the Water Babies".


KLIMOV, Alexander Petrovich / 1914-1979 (URSS)

Teacher in educ. institutions and prominent in consumer co-op
activities. Dir of Centrosoyus, served for 35 years, promoting
role of co-op movement in socio-economic life of USSR. A
delegate from Russia to ICA Congresses from 1945 on; elected a
VP in 1960. As President ICA 1957-79, he strove for cohesion
and mutually-advantageous collaboration between co-op
movements in countries with different political/economic
systems. Staunch fighter for social progress and world peace.
Communist Party and the Soviet State highly valued his
services to the country and he was given many honors.


KNAPP, Joseph G. / 1901-1983 (US)

As a college student in 1920 began his study of co-ops. From
1926-29 worked with Dr. Edwin G. Nourse in Washington, DC, in
production of his book, "The Cooperative Marketing of
Livestock". Assoc. Prof. of Mktg. at NC State Univ. from
1929-34. Helped organize Farmers Co-op Exchange in NC. In
1948, Assoc, Chief of Co-of Research & Service Div. of the
Farm Credit Admin. When the Farmer Co-op Service Agency was
established in 1953 as an independent agency in the USDA,
(later consolidated into Economics, Statistics and Cooperative
Service) Knapp was named its first Admin. and served until
retirement in 1966. Author of a trilogy of books that provide
most definitive information about the history of co-ops and
their leaders that has to date been produced : Rise of
American Cooperative Enterprise (Period 1620-1920); Advance of
American Cooperative Experience (Period 1920-1945) and Great
American Cooperators (Biographies of 101 Cooperative
Pacemakers). In 1975 won first Co-op Fndtn. Ellerbe Award and
in 1979 was inducted into Cooperative Hall of Fame.


KROPOTKIN, Prince Peter / 1841-1921 (Russia)

Nobleman who renounced his title and family and devoted his
attention to fostering the welfare of the underprivileged. He
had come to believe that cooperation, not competition, was the
chief factor in the evolution of society and became an
advocate for "mutual aid," to be built into all forms of
social and economic behavior. Principle set forth in his book,
Mutual Aid. 

LAIDLAW, Alexander Fraser / 1908-1980 (Canada)

A Nova Scotian, who had been Associate Director of the
Extension Department at St Francis Xavier University, became
General Secretary of the Co-op Union of Canada (CUC) in 1958.
Concerned about development of a national education program,
worked in support of The Co-op Institute that had been
organized in Saskatchewan in 1956 - later to become the
Western Co-op College located at Saskatoon. Under his
leadership, CUC supported a program to help disadvantaged
throughout Canada, including Frobisher Bay in Artic Circle,
plus Africa and Asia. New research in this period led to co-op
housing projects and the now-widespread Direct Charge System
for getting low-cost food outlets in cities. Resigned in 1968
to become Chairman of Royal Commission on Co-ops for Ceylon
government. Edited The Man from Margaree, the Writings and
Speeches of M. M. Coady.


LAMBERT, Paul / 1912-1977 (Belgium)

Distinguished leader of Belgian and International Co-op
Movement. University of Liege Prof. of Economy, he taught
cooperation and began to play active administration role in
socialist consumers' co-op movement. In 1962 joined Central
Committee of ICA Executive. Authored work of first importance
on theory of cooperation, translated into several languages,
known as Studies in Social Philosophy of Cooperation. Insisted
application of co-op principles must be firmly rooted in
Rochdale System and this should be explicitly acknowledged in
reports and rules of ICA.


LASSALLE, Ferdinand / 1825-1864 (Germany)

Economist/socialist who opposed cosumer cooperation on the
ground that it would promote individualism/free enterprise and
hinder the coming of socialism and state enterprise. Advanced
Iron Law of Wages : wages tend to be maintained at "minimal
subsistence level." Hence, to lower cost of living by consumer
cooperaton would lower wages, thus also standards of
living...ignoring upward push to wages by labor organizations
and improved quality of goods that consumer cooperation makes
possible.


LAURENSON, Mrs. Mary (England)

Of Woolwich, wrote to Alice Acland, urging the formation of a
women's organization within the Co-op Movement, and worked
with her to achieve the successful inauguration in 1883 of the
Women's Cooperative Guild.


LIGUTTI (Msgr.) Luigi Gino / 1895-1983 (US/Italy)

In Granger; IA, in 1967, the world celebrated the Golden
Anniversary of his ordination as a priest. Work by which he
first became known nationally was leadership given during the
great depression to miners and farmers around Granger - the
first project in the area to involve Protestants and Catholics
working together for community good : first a credit union and
then other kinds of co-ops. From then on a strong proponent of
interfaith cooperation in innumerable activities. "Ecumenical"
describes his life and work for God and co-ops. His second
major contribution was leadership in National Catholic Rural
Life Conference, whose purpose was to improve the
socioeconomic and spiritual welfare of rural people. Became
Observer for the Holy See to Food/Agr. Organization of UN and
the Int'l Dir. of Natl. Cath. Rural Life Assn. Often referred
to as the "Pope's County Agent." Author : Rural Roads to
Security.


LIIMATAINEN, William / 1891-1966 (Finland/US)

Coming early to US, became a dir. and Pres. of his local
(Wawina MN) Co-op Society and also of Trico Co-op Oil Assn.
For 22 years a dir. of Cent. Co-op Wholesale (CCW) (later
Central Cooperatives, then merging with Midland Cooperatives)
at Superior WI, and its Pres. for 11 years; a dir. of Co-op
Life Assn. in Superior and of Mutual Service Ins. Companies in
St Paul. A dir. of Co-op League of US 1939-52, a dir. of Nat'l
Co-op Refinery Assn. in Mac Pherson KS for 8 years, and of
Nat'l Co-ops for 17 years. Pres. of Co-op Publishing Assn.,
Superior. and a dir. for 20 years.


LINCOLN, Murray D. / 1892-1966 (US)


Organizing and nurturing co-ops from his college graduation
throughout his life, he held a variety of important posts : in
CT became New England's first Cnty Agent. Moved to Ohio, to
work with Myron Herrinck, Pres. of Cleveland Society for
Savings, as liaison with farmers inthe area. In 1920 became
Exec. Secy. of Ohio Farm Bur. Fed. Took the lead in organizing
a purchasing and marketing service, Ohio Farm Bureau Service
Co. and became its Gen. Mgr. Soon after was involved in
organizing the Farm Bureau Ins. Companies that later changed
name to Nationwide in order not to be confused with other
state Farm Bureaus that had established ins. programs. Gave
leadership to Nationwide Companies as Pres. until his
retirement. Traveled to Nova Scotia to visit co-ops and came
home excited about their educ. "study clubs" : Assigned staff
to the task of organizing similar groups in Ohio - a dozen
farm families meeting monthly in one of the group's homes. The
idea took hold rapidly and still today in the state there are
over 1,600 of what came to be called "Advisory Councils".
Convinced that co-ops of all kinds were the salvation of the
econ. life of the nation, he constantly worked to broaden
their base through the organizational boards on which he
served. A Bd. member of the Co-op League of the US in 1935 and
elected Pres. in 1941. Elected to Exec. Comm. of ICA 1946-51
and VP in 1946. First Pres. of CARE 1945-57 and then Chr. of
its Bd. His enduring slogan : "People have within their own
hands the tools by which to shape their own destiny". His
life's work - encouraging people to use them. His
autobiography : "Vice-president in Charge of Revolution".
Inducted into Cooperative Hall of Fame 1976.


LIUKKU, Jacob / 1889-1986 (Finland/US)

Spent his adult life working for co-ops. After college
graduation, was employed by Co-op Trading Co. in Waukegan IL.
This co-op dairy (owned jointly by producers and consumers)
was organized in 1911 by 62 Finnish immigrants. In 1918 Liukku
became its Mgr. for the next 40 years, during which the co-op
expanded to include food, gasoline and auto services. Was
Pres. of Waukegan Co-op Credit Union 1920-48, then its Vice
Pres. Was Pres. of Central States Co-op from its orgz. in
1936. He represented Central States Co-op League on the Bd. of
Co-op League of US three different times.


LLOYD, Lewis L. / 1898-1987

Dedicated advocate of co-op way of doing business, active in
organization of Saskatchewan Wheat Pool, local co-ops and CUs.
Took leadership role in organizing co-ops provincially and
inter provincially. Pres. of Co-op Union of Saskatchewan and
worked many years in co-op extn. for the provincial Dept. of
Cooperation. Univ. of Saskatchewan conferred on him an
honorary Doctor of Laws degree.


LUDLOW, John Malcolm Forbes

"JMF" was key person in development, growth and importance in
history of the Christian Socialist Movement in England. In
1848 he inspired/worked with English leaders Rev. charles
Kingsley and Rev. F. D. Maurice to develop co-ops among
various workers' groups. He wrote a series of letters which
constitute the only firsthand picture we have today re the
state of the Cooperative Movement in the North of England as
he found it in 1851. A Christian Socialist from his early
years in France, he became interested in Producers'
Cooperation and gave most of his attention to the
establishment of Working Men's Assns for Cooperative
Production. In all his dealings, continued to stress the
essentially Christian character of the Movement and tried to
see to it that only committed Christians were allowed to join.
This idea, however, ran into difficulty when they began to
enlist the support of the trade unions and Cooperative Stores
already in existence around the country, none of which had
that requirement.


LUZZATTI, Luigi / 1841-1929 (Italy)

Economist, financier, law professor and Minister of the
Treasury of Italy. Favored the ideas of Schulze-Delitzsch of
Germany and helped establish people's banks and consumer
co-ops in his nation.


MAXWELL, William / 1841-1929 (Scotland)

Coach builder, heraldic painter and artist of merit. Led
battle against sweatshops and by 1909 had helped enact
protective legislation in form of Workmen's Compensation Act
and Trade Board Act, first in the history of any capitalist
state. Taught himself French at age 66 when he was elected
Pres. of ICA 1907, serving in that capacity until 1921. Author
of "The History of Cooperatives in Scotland" and "Wholesale
Cooperation in Scotland."


MAY, Henry J. / 1871-1939 (England)

Gen. Secy. of ICA, based in London, from 1913 until his death
in 1939. Previously had been Secy. of Parliamentary Comm. of
Co-op Union of England. In 1928 went to Regina, Saskatchewan
to attend the Third Int'l Wheat Pool Conference, first
occasion on which the ICA had sent an official representative
to a Co-op conference outside of Europe. It implied
recognition, far-reaching in its consequences, of the
importance of an agr. Cooperative Movement. The fact that the
Wheat Pools were recognized as genuine cooperatives by ICA
created greater sympathy between producer and consumer based
cooperatives. An able executive, May rendered great service on
behalf of Int'l Cooperation. The Cent. Comm. of ICA
established in his honor "The Henry J. May Foundation-Center
for the Study of International Cooperation."


MCDONALD A. B. / 1893-1952 (Canada)

Born in Nova Scotia, BA from St Francis Xavier Univ., Assoc.
Dir. Extn. Dept. 1930-44. First Managing Dir. of Nova Scotia
CU League. Treas. of CUNA. Fieldman for Co-op Union fo Canada;
Gen. Secy. 1945-52. Concerned to extend co-op services to
those with the least resources, taking lead in developing the
CARE program in Canada 1946. Attended ICA Congress 1946, first
time CUC had been able to send a delegate. Assisted
Saskatchewan Co-op Life Ins. Co. to gain a Nat'l charter.
Became member of Food/Agr. Organization's Standing Comm. on
Rural Life for UN. Largely through his hard work, in 1951
Co-op Fire & Casualty Co. came into being. Co-op Trust, begun
in 1951, finally became a nat'l organization in 1967.


MILLER, John D. / 1850-1946 (US)

General Counsel and First VP of Dairymen's League Co-op
Association. In 1931 wrote series of articles for "Dairymen's
League News," reprinted in widely-acclaimed pamphlet "The Fed.
Farm Board and its Critics". Became President of National
Co-op Milk Producers Federation in 1922 - the same year he
helped write what became Capper-Volstead Act, the "Bill of
Rights" for farmer co-ops. 1933 elected President of National
Co-op Council. (now National Council of Farmer Co-ops).
Inducted into Cooperative Hall of Fame 1976


MITCHELL, J. T. W. / 1828-1895 (England)

Born and lived in Rochdale all his life. Grandfather had been
active in early co-ops around 1833. Joined the Rochdale
Society of Equitable Pioneers in 1853. Involved in
organization of The North of England Co-op Wholesale in 1863
that later became the Cooperative Wholesale Society (CWS).
Became Chr. of CWS in 1874 and served until his death in 1895.
Said to have been the greatest prophet produced by the co-op
movement in the 19th century. He believed strongly in a
consumer-based economy "with freedom and generous conditions
for producers as they serve human needs which consumers
represent."


MURRAY, Philip / 1886-1952 (Scotland/US)

A gentle soft-spoken coalminer from Scotland, he was Pres. of
the Steel Workers Union and member of the Nat'l CIO Board. In
1940, elected to head the CIO, which post he held until his
sudden death in 1952. The union as a whole had always
supported cooperatives, but Murray personally endorsed them in
1947 and urged his fellow union members to do likewise. His
Int'l Union of Steelworkers a member otf the Council for
Cooperative Development that brought together a number of
Int'l Labor Unions for active support of co-op development
from 1944 through 1953. 

NEAL, E(dward) Vansittart / 1810-1892 (England)

A wealthy member of the Christian Socialists, who took lead in
organizing the London Co-op Society 1850 A founder of the
Co-op Wholesale Society (CWS) of England; later served as Gen.
Secy. of the Cent Bd. of Co-op Union, and as Secy. of the
Congress. Carried major responsibility over many years, to the
very time of his death, in the long, slow creation and
development of the ICA.


NEHRU, Pandit Jawaharlal / 1889-1964 (India)

In January 1958 received delegates to the Regional Conference
of ICA at New Delhi on their way to Kuala-Lumpur and
encouraged them by saying, "Cooperation is a movement which
should grow from below upward". Also cordially welcomed ICA's
establishing a Regional Office in New Delhi.


NURMI, Henry Victor / 1886-1938 (Finland/US)

Came from Finland to US in 1909; started auditing co-op
businesses in 1911; 1922 became head of Cent. Co-op Whoesale's
(CCW) auditing department. In 1931, named Gen. Mgr. of CCW. A
dir. of Northern States Co-op League, serving as VP then Pres.
A dir. of Co-op League of the US 1933-35 and its VP 1933-35.
Also a Bd. member ot Nat'l Co-ops. 

OHDE, Thorsten / 1862-1965 (Sweden)

Leader of co-op educ.; editor of "Kooperatoren," publication
of Kooperativa Forbundet (KF), author of Finland: Land of
Cooperators. Appointed permanent representative of ICA to the
Econ. and Social Cncl. of United Nations in 1948.
Widely-traveled, multilingual, deeply-versed in co-op history
and doctrine, he brought to ICA a deep conviction that
cooperation could solve the economic/political/social problems
of the world.


ORIZET, Jean Baptiste / 1909-1975 (Switzerland/France)

An agricultural engineer, he was VP of Agr. Mutual Ins. Assn.
in Yonne 1931-38; Inspector of Agr. and Social Affairs
1938-42: Technical Advisor and Chief of Mission of French
Ministry of Ag. 1945-48. Worked for Int'l Labour Office (ILO)
Co-op Branch seven and a half years. In 1956, named Dir. of
Area Office for Middle East in Istanbul; 1959 established
first Int'l Labor Office in Africa and became pioneer of
technical cooperation projects in Africa. In 1960 named
Principal Deputy to Chief of Div. of Co-ops, Handicrafts and
Small Scale Industries.


ORNE, Anders, M. D. / 1881-1956 (Sweden)

Physician with strong interest in social medicine, he served
as Pres. of Stockholm Co-op Society; editor of "Kooperatoren,"
organ of Kooperativa Forbundet (KF); member Exec. Comm. of
ICA; Minister of Posts and Telegraphs in govt. Pres. of KF
Congress in 1947. Author of Ideals and Problems of
Cooperatives.


OWEN, Robert / 1771-1858 (Welsh/England)

At age 29 was Mgr./Dir. of New Lanark Mills. Rehoused workers
reduced hours, abolished company store. Substitute co-op
stores, all profits used to build first nursery schools in
Great Britain. Owens'success forced Govt. to concede case for
factory legislation. From then on Owen became a reformer of
note : experimenting in England and US with a number of ideas
for the improvement of conditions for working people. Sought
to spread his New Lanark ideas in the form of utopian
communities such as New Harmony in Indiana, 1825-27. While his
organization of co-op stores did not succeed, much was learned
through his experimentation. As a result, the Rochdale
Pioneers adopted other methods, such as market prices coupled
with patronage savings returns instead of cost-plus prices
without refunds. Nevertheless, the basic purposes and
principles expounded and tested by Owen were crucial in
developing an attitude for change and confidence among working
people of the day that they could, with cooperative effort,
make things better for themselves and their communities. His
autobiography : The life of Robert Owen, Written by Himself. 

PALMER, Robert Alexander / 1890-1977 (England)

Born in Manchester, in the shadow of Rochdale. At age 14
joined a co-op. At 21 became a dir. of Manchester and Salford
Co-op Societies; a staff member of Cooperative Union, later
its Gen. Secy. and then Pres. Was a member of ICA's Cent.
Comm. and Exec. Comm. 1930-48 then VP and Pres. 1939-49.
Served the Int'l Co-op Movement at a critical time in its
history, carrying burden of Presidency during WW II when
communications were cut off between Pres. Tanner of Finland
and ICA membership. Appointed to House of Lords (the first
Cooperative peer) in 1945 and took the title, Lord Rusholme.
His motto : "The World Is My Province".


PANTULU, V. Ramadas / 1873-1944 (India)

Pres. of All-India Institutes'Assn. 1924-44. Pres. of Indian
Co-op Banks Assn. 1927-44. Editor of Indian Cooperative Review
from its founding in 1935. Gave library and part of home in
Myalore to the Inst. of Co-op Research and Service to continue
his work.


PARKER, Florence E. / 1891-1974 (US)

Began working with US Dept. of Labor Statistics immediately
after college graduation and spent her long professional
career there, becoming in 1946, full-time Specialist on
Cooperatives. Developed system for reporting co-op statistics
and wrote the Dept's annual reports on a variety of co-op
enterprises. Attended all Biennial Congresses of Co-op League
of US, 1920-56; was an observer at ICA Congresses 1948 and
1951; was sent fo co-op meetings all across US. After
publiching 3 books on co-ops, wrote the monumental "The First
125 Years : a History of Distributive and Service Cooperatives
in US 1829-1954. (published by Co-op League 1956). Organizer
and charter member of US Dept. of Labor Credit Union; Pres.
and Dir. of Rochdale Co-op (Washington DC) and a dir. of Co-op
League of US in 1955. Inducted into Cooperative League Hall of
Fame in 1985.


PATRIDGE, E. A. / 1862-1931 (Canada)

In 1906 helped found the Grain Growers' Grain Co., Ltd., a
grain-handling business owned by farmers in Manitoba; Pres.
1906-07 and edited Grain Growers' Guide. In 1908 produced "the
Patridge Plan" in which he envisioned provincial govt.
ownership of country elevators and Dominion govt. ownership of
terminal elevators.


PLUNKETT, Horace Curzon, Sir / 1854-1932 (Irland)

Leader in Irish Co-op Movement. Founded Irish Agr.
Organization Society in 1894 which took leadership in
development of processing and marketing co-ops. Founder of
Horace Plunkett Fndtn., an educ. agency for co-op development
worldwide. From early 1900s was highly influential in bringing
the successful Irish methods of cooperation to US farmers,
which efforts were requested and fully supported by Pres.
Theodore Roosevelt through his Country Life Commn. Frequent
personal visits between these two leaders enriched both
nations. Author in 1910 of Rural Life Problems of the US.


POISSON, Ernest / 1882-1942 (France)

Leader of consumer cooperation in France. A follower of
Charles Gide. Member of Cent. Comm. of ICA, a VP and member of
Exec.Comm. 1921-42. Argued convincingly that co-ops should
remain politically neutral. Author of The Cooperative
Republic.


PROUDHON, Pierre Joseph / 1809-1865 (France)

Early Utipian Socialist; first to apply, in 1840, the name of
"anarchy" to "no-government" state of society. Believed time
would come when free/voluntary cooperation in all spheres of
life would replace need for legal contracts and for elected
govt. - which situation would become possible because all men
would see that the caring concern of each for all would result
in a world of mutual confidence, good will, equal opportunity
and adequate income for everyone. Further, he dreamed of a
perfect system in which need for money and private property
would be excluded, paving the way for a cooperative,
socialistic society. Author of The Economic Contradictions of
The Philosophy of Misery.


RAIFFEISEN, Friedrich Wilhelm / 1818-1888 (Germany)

Dire economic conditions in Germany beginning 1846, and
predatory practices of usurers driving farmers into abysmal
poverty, led this young Mayor of Weyerbusch, then
Flammersfeld, then of Heddesdorf to develop in the latter
town, by 1854, the Beneficent Society, which later became a
credit union. By 1868 CUs had accomplished so much good that
word had spread abroad and it was impossible for Raiffeisen to
keep all the requests for his book written in 1869; "Credit
Unions as a Remedy for the Poverty of Rural and Industrial
Workers and Artisans". He emphasized small (village) units
where people know all members; unlimited liability;
responsibility on part of member/borrower; unpaid management
and democratic control. Although his critics insisted business
and religion should be kept separate (causing some CUs to fall
away from their original commitments), Raiffeisen himself held
unwaveringly to the Biblical injuncion: "Even as ye do it unto
one of the least of these..." Through this he was able to
accomplish uncounted "miracles" that come when people work
together for the common good. (See Franz Braumann's A Man
Conquers Poverty). In his lefetime credit unions had taken
root in Austria, Switzerland, Sweden, Belgium, Holland, France
and throughout Germany; since his death, in nearly every
country of the world.


RALL, Udo / 1894-1980 (Germany/US)

Teacher/practitioner of manual arts, design and fine arts.
Devoted much of his life to co-ops, not only as a Fed. Civil
Servant but volunteered time/effort to foundin co-ops
(Rochdale(food) Stores and Konsum (gas stations)) which later
merged with Greenbelt Consumer Services. A director of D. C.
Co-op League and Pres. of Bannockburn (Md) Housing Co-op where
he lived. As Dir. of Div. of Self-Help Co-ops in Fed.
Emergency Relief Admin., 1940 he wrote Cooperative Rural
Electrification in United States which became most important
guideline in this field, arguing for cooperative rather than
private development of rural electrification. As an REA/USDA
employee, he wrote their publication "A Guide for Members,"
designed to encourage active, democratic participation of all
co-op members; contributed his co-op expertise/enthusiasm
frequently to REA-sponsored workshops/conferences.


RAPACKI, Marian / 1884-1944 (Poland)

Outstanding leader of Polish co-op movement; taught courses on
co-ops in Warsaw. Member of Cent. Comm. then of Exec. of ICA.


REDFERN, Percy / 1875-1958 (England)

A labor union member and exec. officer in the union from 1894
on; contributor to /editor of their publications. Engaged by
Co-op Wholesale Society of England (CWS) in 1898 as a clerk,
became editor of its paper "Wheatsheaf"; Deputy Head of CWS
Publicity Dept. 1926-33 and Managing Head of CWS Publications
Dept thereafter. In 1920 wrote the well known 400-page
(official) History of CWS, updated 1930 as A New History of
the CWS. and Journey to Understanding, his autobiography.


RIBAS, Antonio Fabra / 1881-1958 (Spain/Latin America)

Militant cooperator and socialist. Leader of co-ops in Spain -
appointed to Chair of Cooperation at School of Social Studies
in Madrid; a member of Spanish Inst. for Social Reform.
Involved in drafting Co-op Law published in 1931 when Republic
was established. Active in organizing Nat'l Congress of
Spanish Co-ops. Became a Senator in Spain, later Charge
d'Affaires in Switzerland in 1939. Traveled to Latin Amer. to
help with co-op development; founder of Inst. of Co-op Study,
Univ. of Cauca in Popayan, Colombia. Taught courses in
Colombia, Costa Rica and Venezuela. Made several visits to US 
in 1940s. Author of La Cooperacion.


RILEY, J. Norman / 1922-1979 (Canada)

Recognized throughout the Co-op/CU Movement as one of its
"unsung heroes." Asst. Dir. of Coady Int'l Inst., Antigonish,
and teacher there for many years. Instructed Co-op/CU trainees
from the Caribbean, Latin America, Asia and Pacific Islands
who came to Coady. In particular, helped Africa Co-op Savings
& Credit Assn. (ACOSCA) to lay a solid foundation for its
work. Visited every African nation affiliated with ACOSCA
encouraging each to give full support for their Nat'l
Organization. Died suddenly in Malta while on assignment.


ROULEAU Alfred / 1915-1985 (Canada)

Agent 1943-45 and Dept. Mgr. 1945-48 at La Laurentienne Mutual
Life Ins. Co; Founder/Gen. Mgr. 1949-69, Admin. 1960-69 and
Pres./Chief Exec. Officer 1969-72 at Desjardins Life Assurance
Co. Pres. of Confederation des caisses populaires et
d'economie Desjardins du Quebec 1972-81. Pres. of Quebec Co-op
Cncl. 1964-72. Member of Bd. Directors of ICA 1969-72;
Provincial Bank of Canada 1969-72; Int'l Raiffeisen Union
1979-81 and Bank of Canada 1981-82.Member Econ. Cncl. of
Canada 1967-70. Received Order of Cooperative Merit from
canadian Co-op Cncl. 1975 and from Quebec Cooperative Council
1976. Named Companion of Order of Canada 1974 and decorated
with National Order of Quebec 1985.


RUSSELL, George William / 1867-1935 (Ireland)

Under pen name "A.E." became one of Ireland's best-known poets
and writers. Especially concerned for the political and social
life of the nation, he challenged the people to build up their
small communities - and use co-ops as a means of improving
their economic life. Remembered for his statement : "When a
person becomes an imbecile his friends place him in an asylum;
when a people become decadent, they place themselves in the
hands of the state." Most noted writings : "The National Being
and Cooperation and Nationality". Editor of "The Irish
Homestead, 1904-23, periodical of the Irish Agr. Co-op
Movement".


SAPIRO, Aaron / 1884-1959 (US)

>From 1905 on, used his legal expertise to advise and assist
many producer/marketing co-ops coast-to-coast. Made trips into
Canada to help with organization of grain co-ops in western
provinces. Called "the Cooperative Evangelist" because of his
exceptional ability as a speaker, he was also very
controversial in co-op circles because he advocated "top-down"
theory and tight "contractual relations" between farm members
and their co-ops as most practical way to achieve goals, vs
"bottom-up" democratic methods used by more experienced
cooperators. Involved with American Farm Bureau and in 1923
was appointed Legal Adviser to its Departement of Co-op
Marketing. Due to controversy, resigned a year later.
Nevertheless, contributed greatly to growth of large-scale
agricultural co-ops, especially helping them to secure
enabling legislation for their growth and development.


SAINT SIMON, Count de / 1760-1825 (France)

Friends and followers called him "The Father of Socialism."
His brand of socialism a direct outcome of econ/political
revolution which shook all Europe around turn of the 19th
century. An expression of enthusiasm re new industrial regime
of mechanical invention and scientific discovery, it sought to
reflect spirit of man at its best; to interpret generous
aspiration of new bourgeois class. Appealing primarily to men
of more cultured classes, St. Simon preached collectivism and
suppression of inheritance as easiest way to found a new
sociaty. All his life was haunted by need he felt to give new
century the econ./philosophic doctrine it required. He
attempted to furnisch mankind with system of positive morality
to take the place of religious dogmas. Social distinctions,
other than those founded on individual labour and ability,
would disappear, he believed, and need for govt. in ordinary
sense would not exist.


SCHULZE-DELITZSCH (Franz) Hermann / 1808-1883 (Germany)

Economist born in Delitzsch, adding the name of his birthplace
to his name in order to distinguish himself from other
Schulzes. Became interested in condition of laborers and
small-scale trades people and promoted co-op societies, under
the name of "People's Banks" (a form of CUs) which were in
operation by 1857. Founded General Union of Co-op Societies
Resting on Self-Help, in 1859. His ideas differed from those
of Raiffeisen : interested in the urban worker more than in
the peasant, favored large societies as well as small,
advocated fair salaries rather than volunteer service, large
dividends instead of no dividends. In general his ideas were
more economic in import; Raiffeisen's were first of all
humanitarian.


SERWY, Victor / 1863-1946 (Belgium)

Actively associated with co-op movement for over 60 years. In
1898, appointed Secy. of Fed. of Belgian Co-op Societies; 1919
became a Dir of L'Office Cooperatif Belge and continued in
this position to 1935. Member Cent. Comm. of ICA 1902-37;
elected to its Exec. Comm. 1921. Wrote 5-volume Histoire de la
Cooperation and Un Siecle de Cooperation.


SHADID, Michael, M.D. / 1882-1966 (US)


Lebanese immigrant, came to Amer. and earned MD at Washington
Medical School in 1907. Set up practice in Elk City OK and
through application of co-op approach, led people in the area
to see how they could organize to meet their health needs. Met
heavy resistance from local medial professions and statewide.
Won that battle as they established the Farmers Union
Community Hospital Assn. in 1929, a prepaid-type medical plan,
owned by the people of the community. Traveled extensively
across the US, speaking about co-op health care.
Inspired/assisted in organizing a number of health plans,
notably Group Health Co-op of Puget Sound, in Seattle. In 1946
was elected first Pres. Of Co-op Health Fed. of Amer. His
autobiography : "A Doctor for the People". Inducted into
Cooperative Hall of Fame 1981.


SMITH, Adam / 1727-1790 (Scotland)

Internationally read/recognized economist. His major work,
"The Wealth of Nations", a book that veritably shook and has
shaken the field of economics ever since. Published in 1776,
the year of US Declaration of Independence. Like that
document, it was a call for individual freedom - in the
economic sphere. Acknowledged as the Father of
"laissez-faire," believing that if there is no interference
with the desire of each to maximize his own econ. advantage,
it will turn out to be the best for each. This has become one
of the major tenets/rationale, for capitalism. He thought
people would be protected from abuse and exploitation within
this system by "an invisible hand - wich keeps the various
individual activities so integrated as to further the welfare
of the whole society, even though the individuals are only
conscious of working for their own ends. "His reference to
"consumption" as the sole end and purpose of production,"
suggests that within the laissez-faire system, consumers would
be wise to organize to insure that "they" are the "sole end"
and not the producers.


SMITHIES, James / 1819-1869 (England)

Famous member of the 28 Rochdale Pioneers and one of its most
loyal supporters. Of him Holyoake says, "It was his
measureless merriment which kept cooperation in good
countenance in evil days. He laughed the society into
existence, gave the timid courage and made the grimfaced
members genial.He is a symbol of that sense of humor which is
essential to social progress." Elected to Town Cncl. of
Rochdale, usually chosen to fight the battle of the Society in
the courts.


SONNE, Hans Christian / 1817-1880 (Denmark)

A pastor who adapted Rochdale Principles to the establishment
in his country of the first co-op store, in 1866, in town of
Thisted. In 1871, he led in the establishment of a joint
buying organization that was forerunner of the Danish Co-op
Wholesale established in 1896.


SUNDELL, Martin / 1880-1910 (Sweden)

A young printer who helped to put Swedish co-op movement on
its feet by his practical insight, bold initiative, robust
idealism, captivating speaking ability; who literally gave his
life at the age of 30 for the co-op cause, according to Axel
Gjores.


TANNER, Vaino / 1881-1966 (Finland)

A statesman and pioneer leader in the Finnich Co-op Movement.
Served many years as Secy. and Mgr. of ELANTO, largest retail
co-op in Finland. In 1910 elected to Cent. Comm. of ICA. In
1926 became Prime Minister of Finland's first Social
Democratic Govt. and was holding that office when elected
Pres. of ICA. Work of ICA handicapped by inability of Tanner
to keep in touch with the Alliance as Result of war between
Finland and USSR. Throughout his co-op career, a strong
advocate of the "necessity" that co-ops be free from
governmental restrictions.


TOMPKINS (Rev. Fr.) James ("Jimmy") J. / 1870-1953 (Canada)

A pioneer in developing co-ops in eastern Nova Scotia through
stimulating "the common little fellow" to solve his own
problems by means of discussion groups and cooperative effort.
Worked with his cousin, Father Moses Coady, A. B. MacDonald
and others in developing what has become known as "The
Antigonish Movement." As Vice-Rector of St. Francis Xavier
Univ., believed that the Univ. should take its educatin in
informal ways out to the people of the area. From small home
study groups, called "kitchen meetings," especially involving
the poor and needy miners, fishermen and farmers, participants
were encouraged to learn to read, write and take a look
head-on at their econ. problems. Out of these groups came the
families that organized CUs, producer and consumer co-ops and
hsg. co-ops. Fr. Jimmy led in direct action with families that
built hsg. in an area that was later called Tompkinsville. The
saga of that deveolopment written up by Mary Arnold in The
Story of Tompkinsville. He tells of his own philosophy in
Knowledge for the People. 

TOPSHEE (Rev. Fr.) George / 1916-1984 (Canada)

Born in Nova Scotia, educated at St Francis Xavier Univ., he
early came under the influence of Fathers Moses Coady and
Jimmy Tompkins, architects of the Antigonish Movement. Worked
with them after his ordination and became dir. of the Univ.
Extn. Dept. in 1969. His overseas/Third World Work, through
the int'l outreach phase of Antigonish Movement, earned him
Directorship of Coady Int'Inst., the training center for
leaders from developing countries. Helped set up an Extn.
Dept. in Lesotho, South Africa. Worked continuously for strong
relationship between labor and co-ops in the education field.
The George Tophee Memorial Fund, established in 1984, provides
for Annual Topshee Conferences where pressing socio economic
issues are confronted by people from all walks of life in the
Atlantic Region.


TWEEDALE, Ann / circa / 1800-1850 (England)

Only woman among the original 28 members of the Rochdale
Society of Equitable Pioneers, England, 1844.


VAILLANCOURT, Cyrille / 1892-1969 (Canada)

On staff at Dept. of Agr. of Province of Quebec 1915-34. Admin
of Caisse populaire de Levis 1924-69. Admin. 1924-26, Pres.
1926-32 and Mgr. 1932-69 of Union regionale de Quebec. First
Pres. 1932-36 and Gen. Mgr. 1936-69 of Fed. de Quebec des
Unions regionales des caisses populaires Desjardins. Admin. of
societe d'assurance des caisses populaires 1944-69 and Pres.
of Desjardins Life Assurance 1948-69. Part-time lecturer in
cooperation at Laval Univ. 1934-37. Decorated Commander of
Order of St. Gregory the Great, 1946, and Commander of Order
of British Empire, 1943. Member Canadian Senate 1944-69. 

VOLSTEAD, Andrew J. / 1861-1947 (US)

Us Representative and able legislator from MN. Henry C.
Wallace, Secretary of Agricultural, had called a National
Agricultural Conference in Washington in 1922, with delegates
from agricultural, industry and labor. It set the stage for
development of and passage of the Capper-Vostead Marketing
Act. Often referred to as the "Magna Carta" of Co-os
Marketing., it made clear that farmers could organize co-op
marketing associations either on a non-stock or stock basis,
exempt from anti-trust legislation, without danger oflegal
harassment on the form of their organization. Signed into law
by President Harding in 1922. Volstead inducted into
Cooperative Hall of Fame in 1979.


VOORHIS, Jeremiah Horatio (Jerry) / 1901-1984 (US)

In early years, opened the Episcopal Home for Orphan Boys in
W.Y. 1928-38 conducted the Voorhis School (home and school)
for Boys while teaching Amer. History at Pomona College in CA.
Five-term Congressman (CA) before being defeated by Richard
Nixon in 1946. From 1947 to 1965 served as Exec. Dir. of Co-op
League of USA and two more years as its Pres. Until retirement
in 1967. During those years, instrumental in formation of
Group Health Assn. of Amer., Nat'l Assn. of Hsg. Co-ops and
the Organization for the Co-ops of the Americas. A leader in
ICA, serving on its Exec. Comm. Beloved by all his colleagues
in Congress, Senator Paul Douglas said, "I have seen the eyes
of hardened politicians moisten at the mention of Jerry's
name, and I believe he is truly one of the saints of the
earth". Until his death Jerry spent full time, speaking and
writing in behalf of co-ops. Among his publications : American
Cooperatives; Cooperative Enterprise; Out of Debt-Out of
Danger; his own political experiences as told in Confessions
of A Congressman and The Strange Case of Richard Milhous
Nixon.


WARBASSE, James Peter, M. D. / 1866-1957 (US)

First a surgeon in Brooklyn, editor of NY State Medical
Journal of Medicine and author of three-volume Surgical
Treatment that was a standard text in the field. Then became
interested in socioeconomic problems, especially after
traveling in Europe, and was much attracted by Socialism.
Finally, believing that democracy must be local and in the
hands of the consumer, he turned his attention to co-ops. He
joined others in the NY area who had been experimenting with
co-op ventures, and after meetings in his home, helped found
the Cooperative League of America later the Cooperative League
of the USA and now the National Cooperative Business Assn in
1916. From then on until the end of his life, he gave of his
time and money to the development of cooperatives in the US.
Was Pres. of the League until 1941, Us Representative at the
ICA, founder of Rochdale Institute in 1938 that was to become
"The Nat'l Training School for Co-ops". Prolific writer,
widely/quoted author. His Cooperative Democracy was for years
considered the standard text and statement regarding consumer
cooperation. Cooperative Peace was impressive in outlining how
the extn. of co-ops would lead to a world with peace and
justice. His autobiography, "Three voyages", describes in
detail the evolution of his thinking and the motives from
which he drew his energy and commitment. Inducted into
Cooperative Hall of Fame in 1976.


WEBB, Beatrice Potter / 1858-1943
 Still in her 20s, this daughter of a wealthy family, who had
a strong social conscience, began toiling alongside and living
among the working poor, experiencing their problems of
survival, then seeking solutions. Her books "Dock Life in the
East End of London", "The Tailoring Trade of East London" and
at least 2 more about the sweatshop system, contributed to her
herein-mentioned Review of the Poor Law. In 1889 she began an
intensive study of co-op movement; was referred to Sidney Webb
in 1890 as person who could best help her. Their marriage
began a famous lifelong partnership-collaboration in co-ops,
Fabian Socialism, and trade unionism. Her Study of the
Cooperative Movement and the Discovery of the Consumer
influenced a generation of social-democratic cooperators
around the world. Appointed to the Royal Commn. to Review the
(hated !) Poor Law of 1834, she wrote (with some help from
husband Sidney) the Minority Report which stands as one of the
great State Papers of the century, earing her an Honorary
Doctorate from Univ. of Manchester when it was published in
1909. So sound were her findings that by 1944 the govt. had
carried out its most important aspects. In 1920 the Webbs took
over the London School of Economics which had been in
existence since the 1890s and with their revitalizing
influence on its Social Science Dept., it soon enjoyed a
worldwide reputation. Her whole thought/energy focused on
doing all she could to better the total life of all people
through cooperation. Her autobiography : My Apprenticeship.


WEBB, Sidney James / 1869-1942 (England)

He was highly influential throughout England because of his
concise/inspiring essays/pamphlets dealing with the Fabian
Society in which he was active all his life. One of his most
character-revealing traits was his insistence that no class of
people should be destined to remain as slaves to others;
rather, that all should have access to broad education. To
this end he devoted many years of life/work. His Industrial
Democracy, 1898, and his joint book with wife Beatrice,
History of Trade Unionism showed that political democracy will
get nowhere without its twin, economic democracy. A member of
London City Council for years, he was also architect and
framer of first political program of the Labour Party in 1918
with Trade Unions and Miners Fed. making the bulk of
membership. He was Labour Party representative to House of
Commons 1922-28 and in 1929 was elected to House of Lords.
Only after his death did his views about trade and
unemployment become part of official British policy. Because
of the Webbs' influential interest in cooperative democracy
for all England, it was felt that "(their) research, however
scholarly, was dangerous because it was apt to blow sky high
the islands of economic security in which the 'top notch' of
the intellectual world were living."


WOLFF, Henry William / 1840-1930 (England)

A man whose extraordinary combination of
cooperative/credit/agricultural experience and also an
acquaintance with such leaders across all Europe, made him
admirable choice for Chr. of Comm. to prepare for first
Congress of ICA, London, 1895. Named Treas. of its Cent. Comm.
Helped draft first constitution for ICA. Became interested in
problems of rural credit while farming in Germany, and came
upon the development of credit unions. From this experience in
1893, he published a book, People's Banks : A Record of Social
and Economic Success, that was to have wide influence;
especially on Desjardins in Canada and Jay in MA. At the 1921
Congress of ICA, his name was included in the first list of
names by that organization for "Committee of Honour" in
recognition of their lifelong service to their "Nat'l
Movements as well as to ICA."


WOLLEMBORG, Dr. Leone / 1859-1932 (Italy)

A statesman who in 1883 established first rural credit union
(following Raiffeisen plan) for people of Loreggia, a parish
of Padua, Italy. Same year founded La Coperazione Rurale,
first co-op publication in Italy. Received his inspiration for
co-ops from Luigi Luzzatti.


WORLEY, J.J. / 1887-1944 (England)

Became member of the cooperative society in City of Plymouth
at age 16. From 1922-44 was Secy. of the Cooperative
Productive Fed. In 1922 was also elected to the joint
Parliamentary Comm. of the
Co-op Congress. In 1937 was Pres. of Cooperative Congress.