Information for Overhead Transparencies

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   This document has been made available in electronic format
           by the International Co-operative Alliance.
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                ILO - ICA Training Package 

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              GENDER ISSUES IN COOPERATIVES:  
                 AN ILO - ICA PERSPECTIVE
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            2 Hours on Gender Issues in Cooperatives:
 An introductory session on gender issues for cooperative leaders

         Information for Overhead Transparencies 


                     Transparency 1A
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             Gender and gender relations
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When we refer to "gender", we refer to the differences between men
and women that are determined by a person's social and cultural
environment and not by a person's sex, i.e biological factors.

Gender relations are determined by numerous factors such as age,
class, education, race and religion.



                    Transparency 1B  
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        What is a role? What are gender roles?
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What is a role?

A role is a pattern of behaviour of a person. It is shaped by the
status and position of that person in a community, and influenced
by one's own opinion and other people's expectations of the role.
It is hence culturally and economically and socially determined. 

What are gender roles?

Gender roles are roles that are played by both women and men
which are not determined by biological factors but by the socio-
economic and cultural environment or situation. 

For example, in parts of Africa and Latin America unskilled
construction work is regarded as "men's work", whereas in India
it is regarded as "women's work"



                    Transparency 2A
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        Statements for the "buzzing discussions"
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-    Men are the heads of households and all decisions that
     affect the family should therefore be taken by them.

-    Men and women should share household responsibilities and
     decision-making.

-    A women's place is primarily in the home. Women should
     therefore concentrate on being housewives and child bearers
     and not get involved in economic activities.

-    Women should have the same rights and opportunities as men.

-    Efforts should be made to facilitate women's involvement in
     productive or economic activities.



                   Transparency 2B
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        Statements for the "buzzing discussions"
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-    Cooperative education and training is more important for
     male members as they are the main participants in
     cooperatives.

-    Women and men should be equal partners in cooperative
     development. 

-    Women should have equal access to training and education
     facilities and participate in decision-making.

-    Women do not have the right personal characteristics to
     assume leadership or managerial positions as they are
     generally too emotional, frivolous, indecisive and lack
     confidence.

-    Women are capable of assuming leadership roles.



                    Transparency 3
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       Picture: Woman carrying a bundle of "roles"
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                   Transparency 4
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                "Women's Double Day"
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Women are in most societies responsible for all domestic
activities such as housework, food preparation and child rearing
in addition to their involvement in formal or informal economic
activities. 

This "double day" results in general in a heavier workload on
women than on men, although this also depends on education,
social class, age or ethnic group.



                  Tranparency 5A
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                   Loss of Land
                 ----------------

Many women - especially in Africa - have lost their traditional
rights to the land they work because colonial laws and
development policies have tended to allocte land only to men.

(Drawing)



                     Tranparency 5B
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                   Division of Labour
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Women in Africa do up to three quarters of all agricultural work
in addition to their domestic responsibilities.

(Graph)

Ploughing          30%
Planting                50%
Livestock               50%
Harvesting                   60%
Weedind                           70%
Processing and storing crops           85%
Domestic work                              95%


Source:        UN Economic Commission for Africa



                      Transparency 6
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               Gender Issues in Cooperatives
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*    Low level of participation of women in cooperative
     development. The quality of participation in cooperatives
     e.g. in what capacities do women participate - as members,
     staff, office bearers? Are efforts made to increase women's
     participation?

*    Constraints to participation in cooperatives e.g. social,
     cultural, economic and political restrictions on women,
     heavy workload, education, selection criteria for members
     etc.

*    Participation of women in decision-making processes. Are
     men and women equal partners?

*    Lack of access to and control over resources such as
     credit, education, training, production inputs, marketing
     outlets, etc.

*    Training and education programmes. Do these programmes
     address women's needs, are they conveniently timed and are,
     for instance, child-care facilities available?



                  Transparency 7
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        Aims of the gender sensitization session
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The aims of this gender sensitization session have been to make
people aware that:

*    democratic participation in cooperatives means that both
     men and women should participate equally in cooperatives;

*    gender-related problems also exist in the cooperative
     sector; 

*    women are not a special marginalized interest group but
     represent half the world's population and contribute to
     socio-economic development;

*    both men's and women's needs and concerns must be addressed
     equally;

*    both men and women should be afforded equal opportunities
     and treatment within the cooperative sector and should
     benefit equally from cooperative development;

*    both men and women should have equal access to decision-
     making levels and leadership positions; 

*    both men and women should share responsibilities and power
     in all spheres of life;

*    women face constraints in their access to and control over
     resources e.g. credit, training and education etc.