Introduction

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   This document has been made available in electronic format
      by the International Co-operative Alliance ICA
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                   Advance Unedited Version

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  REVIEW OF NATIONAL EXPERIENCE IN PROMOTING AND SUPPORTING
   THE CONTRIBUTION OF CO-OPERATIVES TO SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT:
 
  CO-OPERATIVE ENTERPRISE IN THE HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE SECTORS
      A GLOBAL REVIEW AND PROPOSALS FOR POLICY COORDINATION
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CHAPTER II.    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS AND CONTEMPORARY GLOBAL
               SITUATION OF USER-OWNED CO-OPERATIVE ENTERPRISES
               WHOSE BUSINESS GOALS ARE SOLELY CONCERNED WITH
               HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE


This review is concerned with the broad engagement of all
components of the co-operative movement in the questions of
health and social well-being. It focuses particularly on
co-operative enterprises which are directly engaged as "health"
and/or "social care" co-operative enterprises, or as co-operative
pharmacies, insurance co-operatives, and co-operative enterprises
which have been defined as "health sector support co-operatives",
but is concerned also with the very important contributions of
co-operatives in primary production, processing and retail
distribution, as well as housing and other service co-operatives.

The developmental dynamic and current situation of co-operatives
whose business goals are solely concerned with health and social
care, and which are owned by their users (clients, patients), is
examined in detail in this chapter. Chapter III will examine
provider-owned co-operatives whose business goals are solely
concerned with health and social care. Chapter IV will be
concerned with the broad contributions of other components of
co-operative movements mostly user-owned, to health and social
well-being.

In chapters two and three, as a prerequisite for the subsequent
analyses, diagnoses and prognoses, information is provided for
each of the countries in which health and social care co-
operatives are known to operate: in some cases material is
substantial, in others it is still sketchy. This review is the
first comprehensive treatment of the topic, and as most
information is derived from written sources which are generally
not accessible, from oral reports provided at a number of
conferences and from information provided directly to the United
Nations Secretariat by communications from the enterprises and
organizations concerned, all available information relevant to
an understanding of the nature of the health co-operative and the
societal circumstances which have affected this development is
provided in the country entries which follow. Information which
will allow readers to contact relevant organizations is set out
in Annex II.