Notes (1986)

    This document has been made available in electronic format
         by the International Co-operative Alliance ICA 
                         May, 1986

          (Source:  Co-operative Principles, Today & 
               Tomorrow by W.P. Watkins, pp.159-162)


1.   Edward Vansittart Neale (1810-1892) Christian Socialist;
     promoter of workers' co-operative productive societies;
     first General Secretary of the British Co-operative Union
     from 1873 to 1890; joint author of `A Manual for Co-
     operators', a classic of co-operative ethics and economics.

2.   Henry J. May (1866-1939) Parliamentary Secretary of the Co-
     operative Union from 1908 to 1922; General Secretary of the
     International Co-operative Alliance from the Glasgow ICA
     Congress (1913) until his death.

Chapter One
1.   Horace Plunkett (1854-1932) pioneer of agricultural co-
     operation in Ireland who after 40 meetings established the
     first Irish Co-operative creamery. His lifework is
     commemorated by the Plunkett Foundation for Co-operative
     Studies, Oxford.

2.   G.J. Holyoake (1817-1906) Co-operative leader and
     secularist. A prolific author of books on Co-operation. His
     opinions as a Freethinker and atheist led to his
     imprisonment in 1842. A founder of the British Co-operative
     Union, his name has been given to the Union's headquarters
     in Manchester.

3.   Georges Fauquet (1883-1953) Doctor of medicine. First chief
     of the Co-operative Section of the International Labour
     Office; author of `The Co-operative Sector'.

4.   Robert Owen (1771-1858) often described as `The Father of
     Co-operation', his Co-operative ideas provided a stimulus
     to the Rochdale Pioneers and many other co-operators. A
     prolific author on co-operative and related questions.
     Founded a number of co-operative communities but without
     success. Active also as an educationist, advocate of
     factory legislation and a founder of British trade

5.   F.C.M. Fourier (1772-1837) French socialist who advocated
     the establishment of self-supporting co-operative
     communities called `phalanxes', the members living in a
     beautiful and commodious centre called a `phalanstery'.
     Many Fourierist communities were started in France and the
     USA but did not succeed.

6.   Charles Gide (1847-1932) Professor of Political Economy in
     several French universities and Professor of Co-operation
     in Paris in the 1920's. In his economic writings he
     emphasised the importance of the consumer.

Chapter Two
1.   William Thompson (1785?-1833) Owenite Socialist and author
     of books defending the workers' right to the whole produce
     of their labour and giving practical directions for the
     formation of co-operative communities.

2.   Dr. William King (1786-1865) Brighton physician and co-
     operative thinker who wrote and published the famous `The
     Co-operator', a monthly tract which appeared from May 1825
     to August 1830. This four-page publication had great
     influence on early co-operators and was certainly read by
     some of the Rochdale Pioneers.

3.   Claude Henri Saint-Simon (1760-1825) French philosopher who
     taught that individualism and social strife must be
     superseded by association and social organisation.

4.   Philippe Buchez (1794-1863) originally a disciple of Saint-
     Simon but became an advocate of working men's productive
     associations for those whose industries had not yet been

5.   Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch (1808-1883) from 1849 onwards
     organised German artisans in co-operative credit societies
     known as `people's banks' and purchasing associations for
     raw materials. He was a great popular educator and his co-
     operative movement spread rapidly in Germany and Austria
     where it is still strong today.

6.   Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen (1818-1888) provincial
     administrator who organised credit relief for poverty-
     stricken and indebted German peasantry. Between 1849 and
     1862 he worked out a suitable form of credit society based
     on co-operative self-help. This grew into the largest Co-
     operative Movement in Germany. Since 1920 co-operative
     credit societies have been established in many other parts
     of the world.

7.   J.C. Gray (1854-1912) appointed General Secretary of the
     British Co-operative Union in 1891. Was joint honorary
     secretary of the ICA. Advocated that all existing British
     Co-operative societies be combined into one national

8.   E. Poisson (1882-1942) eminent French Co-operative leader
     and author. Became Secretary of the french Co-operative
     Union in 1912 and was eventually appointed Vice President
     of the ICA - an office he held until his death. His `Co-
     operative Republic' was translated into English by W.P.

Chapter Three
1.   Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) author, essayist, poet and
     critic. Compiler of the great `Dictionary of the English
     Language'. Subject of James Boswell's Life of Samuel
     Johnson', regarded as the greatest biography in English

2.   Dr. J.B. Tayler, Christian missionary and lecturer in
     mathematics at Chinese universities. Took an active
     interest in the Co-operative Marketing of Cotton in China.

3.   Albert Thomas (1879-1932) French Socialist politician and
     Co-operator. Director of the International Labour Office
     1920-1932. Created the Co-operative Section of the ILO and
     appointed Dr. Fauquet to head it.

4.   John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946) British economist.
     Originator of the economic theory of `Keynesianism' which
     had great influence on monetary and employment policy in
     Britain and elsewhere after the Second World War.

Chapter Four
1.   Marcel Brot (1887-1966) eminent French Co-operator. He was
     simultaneously President of the Co-operators of Lorraine,
     President of the National Federation of Consumers' Co-
     operatives of France and from 1955 to 1960 President of the
     International Co-operative Alliance.

2.   Independent Commission of Inquiry. Set up by the British
     Co-operative Movement in 1995, it was headed by Hugh
     Gaitskell, then leader of the Labour Party, with C.A.R.
     Crosland, later Foreign Minister, as Secretary. The
     Commission reported in 1959 on the Movement's main
     weaknesses and put forward radical proposals for its

3.   Laiteries Reunies. United Diaries - the milk producer in
     partnership with the Geneva Consumers' Co-operative.

Chapter Five
1.   Nassau Senior (1790-1864) British economist whose
     theoretical writings are still held in esteem but whose
     practical proposals earned him the justified criticism of
     Karl Mark and others.

Chapter Eight
1.   This beverage is an Irish black beer producer under the
     trade name of Guinnes. The advertising slogan `Guinnes is
     good for you' became famous throughout Britain and Ireland,
     although it would not be allowed under current advertising

Chapter Nine
1.   Charles Henri Barbier (1901-1984) French by birth but
     resident in Switzerland. Vice-President of the Swiss Co-
     operative Union and member of the ICA Executive Committee
     which he represented on UNESCO.

2.   Dr. Alex Laidlaw (1908-1980) General Secretary of the Co-
     operative Union of Canada. Served on the Central and
     Executive Committees of the ICA and was appointed to
     prepare a keynote paper on `Co-operatives in the Year
     2000'. His forecasts and warnings made a profound
     impression on the subsequent ICA Congress in Moscow (1980).

Since the text of this book was written, structural changes in
the French Movement have meant that the federal organisation
Federation Nationale des Cooperatives de Consommateurs has ceased
to exist.