Values for the Future (1992)

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This document has been made available in electronic format
by the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA)
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October, 1992
(Source: Co-operative Values in a Changing World (1992) 



             VII.    VALUES FOR THE FUTURE
             *******************************

  
Recommendations for the main orientation
--------------------------------------------------  
  
(".  . . But this is not to say that people working 
through co-operatives cannot help to make the future, 
for indeed this is the central purpose of the co-operative 
movement: to help make a different and a better kind of 
world. The history of the future has not been written,
and co-operators must be determined to have a hand 
in writing it. In short, co-operators can be active 
participants in the planning, and indeed creators, of the 
future, if they only have a mind and a will for it."
  
-A. Laidlaw, 1980)
  
  
  
Our co-operative starting points for the future include
successful lines of development as well as problematic
experiences and failures. Taken as a whole, the situation
does not offer a solid basis to carry out those very
grand visions of co-operative penetration from the first
half of this century, such as the `Co-operative
Commonwealth' and the `Co-operative Economy'. We need
visions, but we should stay closer to the conception of
the `Co-operative sector'. Nor is that a very modest
ambition, especially when it is considered in its deeper
approach to co-operative perspectives.
  
The 90s is best used as a decade for consolidation, not
only in an economic sense, but also democratically and
ideologically. Much footwork must be done in order to
restore and increase confidence in the co-operative way.
Then, we might produce great common visions for the next
century, because the co-operative possibilities are, as
usual, innumerable. Yes, one may say that the
co-operative way has just started to gain ground when
examined in global perspectives.
  
1. Background value orientations
---------------------------------------  
The co-operative way is faced with an abundance of
crucial tasks for the next decades. That becomes evident
if we try and reconcile basic co-operative values and
ideas with the trends and tendencies of the 70s and the\
80's (see chapter III) into the future:
  
-  Increasing division between rich and poor countries.
  
-  Increasing destruction of natural resources.
  
-  Increasing rates of unemployment, not only in
   developing countries, but also in the industrialized
   part of the world.
  
-  Increasing tension between local and central interests.
  
-  Increasing internationalization of national
   economies; by regional affiliations, transnational
   enterprises and trade.
  
-  Increasing globalization of living conditions.
  
-  Emerging post-industrial societies with new kinds 
   of need.
  
The co-operative way cannot be expected to make more than
marginal contributions in these areas. It is nevertheless
as important as ever for the world co-operative sector to
identify for itself some essential global prospects for
the very long-term orientation of activities and use of
resources. This is a modest expectation, especially
within the ICA, the international co-operative organization. 
In such contexts I always can hear the wise statement of 
A. Laidlaw ringing in my ears:  ". .  if they only have a 
mind and a will for it."
  
Yes, certainly, the mind and the will. 
  
One thing is certain in this context, the essential
contributions must be carried out by co-operative
organizations which are `co-operative' in character.
Co-operative organizations might transform themselves
into capital-oriented associations and make similar
contributions, but that is not what the future expects
from co-operatives, because such contributions can be
better carried out by capital associations. The future
expects `co-operative' contributions from co-operative
organizations. That is a truism, but needs to be repeated. 
  
The unanimous resolution of the Stockholm Congress
demonstrates a will to search for the basics of the
future co-operative way. I have similarly interpreted the
will of all co-operators who are worried about the
weakening identity of co-operative organizations and
emphasize the need for `true' co-operatives, be it in
industrialized or developing countries. In my preparatory
discussions I have often encountered these attitudes,
expressing a strong will to keep and to develop the basic
character of the co-operative way for the future. 
  
1.1.    Moscow, Hamburg and Stockholm 
---------------------------------------------------  
The ICA Congresses of recent decades have furnished 
us with points of departure for the identification of
essential global values. In Moscow we established the
well-known priorities (as identified by Laidlaw), which
are as valid today as they were 10 years ago. The future
needs co-operative organizations which can be identified
as:
  
-  Co-operatives for feeding a hungry world. 
  
-  Co-operatives for productive labour. 
  
-  Co-operatives for the conservationist society. 
  
-  Co-operatives for building community networks.
  
Behind these overall recommendations of orientation there
are a range of essential basic co-operative values. In
his background report A. Laidlaw stressed the `pluralist'
co-operative strategy in approaching these global roles
for Co-operation; and of course it is true that the world
co-operative sector must use all its types of co-operative 
association to approach the various future needs 
effectively. This is even more true today, and for
the future, than 10 years ago. 
  
The 1984 ICA Congress in Hamburg emphasized the above 
by identifying the major policy areas for a future programme
of action (based on the Trunow and Daneau reports):
  
-  Struggle for peace
  
-  Assistance to co-operatives in the less developed countries
  
-  Improvement of production and distribution of food,
   raw materials and energy
  
-  Protection of the environment.
  
The Stockholm Congress, 1988 (based on L. Marcus'
report), finally recommended that the co-operative way
should stand for and develop the values of: 
  
-  Democracy
  
-  Participation
  
-  Honesty
  
-  Caring (for others).
  
I have found the same unanimous acceptance during my
preparatory work, and I take it as a sign of the statesman-
ship of Lars Marcus that he can identify and express values 
of universal agreement: "consensus values". Somebody 
once said that the world co-operative sector identified its 
main areas for the future in Moscow, its main perspectives 
in Hamburg and its `soul' in Stockholm. Now, in Tokyo, 
it is time to put these together and to start  to form them 
into some basic instrumental guidelines for the future.
  
2. Future Prospects 
-----------------------  
In my preparatory work I identified the traditional basic
values, examined them in the light of experiences,
discussed some crucial aspects of those experiences in
more detail, got numerous reactions from co-operators
about the crucial values for the future, studied programmes 
of action, reviewed local identifications of basic values 
and discussed with co-operators in consultations, seminars 
and conferences. There are obvious signs of changing 
values during recent decades: reinterpretation and changing 
priorities in the practices and the applications (chapters III, 
IV, V and VI). In particular, the emphasis on values of 
economic effectiveness and efficiency has increased, which 
has influenced other values. This is quite natural in these
times; it would be both alarming and surprising if it did
not occur.
  
One may expect these experiences also to have influenced
the values intended for the future. They probably have in
some parts of the Co-operative Movement. I do not,
however, have any strong impressions of that. Instead, I
have the impression that co-operators want to uphold most
of the traditional values in their essence, when it comes
to identifying the long-term future value guidelines. I
have seen and heard some differences in priorities between 
the separate values, but this is usual at all times. The 
conception of the value basis as a whole, however, seems 
to be fairly similar and quite traditional. 
  
Of course, I have not made complete investigations
because I do not believe in such methods in these
contexts. And this consensus might be interpreted in
various ways. Until further notice, I take it as a sign
that the traditional values have an eternal meaning for
committed co-operators when it comes to the basic
intentions and purposes of the co-operative way. The past
decades have made the realization of these values
problematic, but this has not made committed co-operators
ready to give them up, or to radically change their views
on them. 
  
2.1.    Essential consensus values
----------------------------------------  
Some values are notably recurrent, and I look upon them
as essential consensus values. Not surprisingly, here we
find the basic ideas of:
  
-  Equality (democracy) and equity
  
-  Voluntary and mutual self-help
  
-  Human emancipation in economic and social terms.
  
These have always been basic to the concept of
Co-operation and will undoubtably continue to constitute
this basis in the minds of co-operators. The equity
values have been reinterpreted and weakened in their old
meaning in connection with the applications of capital
formation, and this is also reflected in the intended
values for the future. I will return to this in chapter
VIII when discussing the revision of the ICA Principles.
In some parts of the world co-operative sector, i.e. the
old organizations of the industrialized countries,
emancipation values do not seem to be evident in
practice; on the other hand, in global perspectives these
values are obvious and relevant. 
  
The basic ethics are less discussed and occur less
frequently in lists of values, etc., I understand,
however, that L. Marcus has managed to arouse interest in
them among co-operators by stressing `honesty' and
`caring'. I have experienced a high consensus about
these, especially among Japanese co-operators. This is
not surprising, since these ethics have belonged to the
basics of many of the pioneering co-operative models. I
have preferred to interpret them as belonging to the
`co-operative spirit' and to the basic `organizational
culture' for the future. I also have the impression that
"a democratic mind" definitely belongs to these, as the
optimistic and faithful attitude. I have expressed the\
latter as `constructiveness'. There is, without doubt, a
basic belief among committed co-operators that the
co-operative way, in spite of unusually big problems,
will triumph in the long run. It is a basic belief in the
human abilities to change the situation for the better.
Co-operators are not determinists, but believe in the
humanistic approach that, step by step, we can 
improve our conditions.
  
There are also, of course, lots of basic fundamental
policy concepts, which have been carried forward. 
These might be looked upon as consequences of the 
basic ideals and ethics. Among the most common we 
can observe:  "serving the weaker part of the population",
"contributions to eliminate poverty", "struggle for peace", 
"protection of the environment", "responsibility for the 
community", "political independence", "creation of 
employment", "economic democracy" and  
"internationalism". These are all common expressions 
of the values and I will refer to some of them later.
  
Turning to the basic instrumental values, principles and
characteristics - on how to build up the co-operative
organization - the views are quite similar. There are the
usual principles and characteristics:
  
-  Association of persons
  
-  Efficient member promotion 
  
-  Democratic management and member participation
  
-  Autonomy and independence
  
-  Identity and unity
  
-  Education
  
-  Fair distribution of benefits
  
-  Co-operation, nationally and internationally.
  
Such concepts as "member ownership" and "economic
efficiency" are often mentioned. It also seems that
"autonomy" receives more emphasis than before; in 
earlier times this principle was always mentioned as a
"well-understood" precondition for democracy. Today, 
it is more often mentioned as such, probably because of 
the experiences in many countries.
  
2.2.    Prospective values
------------------------------  
It is not meaningful to try to identify priorities among
the essential values in overall global perspectives. That
is a matter for individual organizations to carry out in
their various contexts of development. In global
perspectives we had better express these as some
essential prospects for the future, which reflect the
essence of the co-operative way. These might be
considered as constituting the "value profile" of the world 
co-operative movement, as "basic global values" for the 
coming decades and beyond.
  
So, using my impressions of the experiences of past
decades, likely future tasks, the many expressions of
essential values by co-operative organizations, ICA
Congresses, Central Committees and special committees,
and committed co-operators, I have tried to identify some
overall prospects as especially relevant for the future.
I have also tried to make these (i) action-oriented and
(ii) possible to evaluate. It should be possible to form
them into action programmes and to estimate progress in
the implementation. 
  
My research has brought me to the conclusion that during
the next decades co-operative organizations should
consider themselves as organizations for:
  
-  Economic activities for meeting needs
  
-  Participatory democracy 
  
-  Human resource mobilization (development)
  
-  Social responsibility 
  
-  National and international co-operation. 
  
As a whole, these reflect the essence of the co-operative
way, both in its community contexts and in its
organizational characteristics. They might be summed up
as an overall expression of "Co-operation for Economic
Democracy", or perhaps "Co-operation for a Humanistic 
and Democratic Economy". However, the work of creating 
global co-operative slogans remains. 
  
The individual co-operative organizations in various
stages of development might be looked upon as
`instruments' to realize these overall prospects. The
selection of the correct applications to carry this out
is, of course, a matter for the individual co-operatives.
On the other hand, since the above values might also be
implemented by organizations other than co-operatives,
there must be some universality in the co-operative
instrumental values and principles in order to
differentiate between the co-operative way and other
methods of organization. I will return to this in the
final chapter about the ICA Co-operative Principles.
  
3. Economy for needs
--------------------------  
The basic aim of Co-operation to serve the needs of the
members, and in figurative sense the people, includes two
basic questions: (i) to which needs should co-operative
activities be oriented. (ii) how should co-operative
activities be organized to define and to satisfy these
needs?
  
3.1.    Needs of the majority
----------------------------------  
The answer to the first question should be, as it always
has been, in the context of ICA: the needs of the common
people as farmers, workers, wage earners, consumers,
producers, fishermen, savers, borrowers, etc. In other
words, the needs of the large groups of people, of the
majority. The co-operative way has also always had an
orientation to the weaker and the poorer part of the
population. This must be true also for the future in the
national and regional, as well as the global contexts. 
  
Traditionally, the co-operative way has not been a
concern for the wealthy, although, of course, they have
used it and are welcome to do so in the future. This will
probably become more frequent in those parts of the world
which are entering the post-industrial era.
  
3.2.    Efficient economy
------------------------------  
Turning to the second question, it goes without saying
that Co-operation is about efficient economic ways.
Sometimes the slogan "co-operatives for service, not for
profit" is looked upon as some kind of excuse for
economic inefficiency. Nothing could be more wrong. The
co-operative economic system is built upon people's
scarce savings, often those of relatively poor people,
and this gives the co-operative way a special
responsibility to economize with those resources. At the
same time, however, co-operative organizations must
carefully consider the implications of "economic
efficiency" and use methods consistent with co-operative
values. 
  
Co-operatives should use efficient ways to identify the
essential needs; to some extent the market might be the
proper indicator, to some extent it must be supplemented
with methods by which co-operative members participate
more directly. The latter is especially true when it comes 
to the overall use of co-operative resources and to the 
delicate, and more abstract, aspect of the quality of
services. 
  
3.3.  The poor part of the world
--------------------------------------
In global perspectives the main orientation toward the
relatively poor part of the world is irrefutable; here
are the fundamental needs for co-operative contributions.
But it would be a mistake to draw the conclusion that
co-operative activities in the relatively rich world have
lost their relevance for the future. Each part of the
world has its own needs of co-operative contributions;
and co-operative organizations must carry out their
activities effectively in all environments and use this
role to demonstrate the merits of the co-operative way.
In the long-run, successful co-operative organizations in
various parts of the world will support each other
wholeheartedly and the established co-operatives have a
crucial role to play in the stability of the worldwide
co-operative sector. 
  
This, however, must not stand in the way of the main
priority: the next century must be the century when the
Third World countries will also enjoy the benefits of a
strong co-operative movement! 
  
3.4.    Environmental protection
--------------------------------------  
Another main orientation of co-operative activities from
a local as well as a global perspective should be 
connected to various aspects of environmental protection.
Co-operative organizations have been at the forefront in
these areas: in production, distribution and the moulding
of public opinion. We can also, in recent decades, notice
new and interesting lines of development in the form of
new co-operatives which specialize in, for instance,
organic cultivation, health food, etc.
  
These are crucial perspectives for the future. Co-operative 
organizations, nationally and internationally, need to 
play a proactive role and, as these problems are becoming 
more global in character, this requires international 
approaches. The next century  needs the contributions 
of co-operative organizations as a people-based 
"international countervailing power" for economizing 
with the natural resources of the world and hence 
protecting the fundamental needs of coming generations! 
There is  no doubt that the world co-operative sector 
has unique potentials.
  
4. Participatory democracy
--------------------------------  
Co-operators and co-operative organizations have always
considered democracy as fundamental to the co-operative
way. This has implied that co-operative organizations
have made no distinctions between political and economic
spheres, but have believed in the possibility for people
to effectively manage economic activities in democratic
ways. This should characterize the co-operative prospects
also for the future, where democracy should increasingly
have the character of participatory democracy.
  
In some parts of the world this process of democratization 
of economic life is on its way, in some countries it has 
just started and in other countries the reality is still far 
from what might be considered as democracy. The need 
for co-operative pioneering contributions is as large as ever.
  
4.1.    School of democracy
---------------------------------  
Co-operative organizations have been looked upon as a
"school of democracy", or even a "school of solidarity",
during large parts of their history. Co-operative
organizations became, especially for the working classes,
a preparation for responsible positions in society at
large. To parts of the world Co-operative Movement, those
working in modern welfare societies, these contributions
are mostly a "proud memory" today, as the democratic
system has become accepted and the public educational
system has become open to all. For other parts of the
Co-operative Movement, on the other hand, the importance
of this task is as relevant now as ever. The co-operative
way should be an opportunity for people to practise
democratic responsibility for their living conditions and
for the community at large.
  
4.2.    Economic democracy
----------------------------------  
It would be too hasty, however, to jump to the
conclusion, that the values of democracy have been
totally taken care of by the modern welfare societies:
our aim has always been participatory economic democracy,
which requires conscious efforts to continually reproduce
the conditions. Failing this, these aims will be nothing
but illusions. 
  
The road towards economic democracy is just at the
beginning. Co-operation has got the ideas, the forms, the
ownership - in the hands of the organization and the many
committed people. For the future there is a need to create 
the proper conditions for co-operative members to realize 
these ideas and to fill their outlines with democratic contents. 
Co-operatives should be in the forefront when it comes to 
demonstrating to the world around that democratic 
participation in economic activities is the challenging 
long-term way to improve living conditions.
  
4.3.    Employees, women, young people
-------------------------------------------------  
Co-operatively committed employees have always been
crucial to co-operative success stories. Employees must
consequently be given a proper place in co-operative
participatory democracy. Among other things,
co-operatives should find methods corresponding to
profit-sharing in private business,  by trying more
co-partnership models, within which employees become
owners and the members together with the user-members. 
  
A particularly urgent issue in this context is that of
women's participation. Women traditionally participate as
much as men, perhaps more, in grassroot co-operative
activities. But, as we know too well, this is not
reflected in co-operative management and leadership.
Women should be looked upon as the most essential 
"hidden resources" for the future co-operative way. These
resources should be unleashed.
  
The same is true of young people. Older co-operative
organizations have something to learn from the new
co-operatives in how to encourage young people to
participate. One aspect is obvious: the older established
co-operative organizations should, and must, allow young
people to be pioneers; to try, to fail and to succeed. To
invite young people only into well-prepared structures,
and to tell them that nothing is possible except the
status quo will only keep committed young people outside
the more established co-operative world. 
  
5. Mobilization of human resources
-------------------------------------------  
The power of co-operative ideas to engage and to mobilize
people has history as the evident witness. Co-operative
organizations have appeared as that part of the society
within which people have got voices, individually and
collectively, to influence their conditions and those of
the community at large. 
  
5.1.    Social and economic emancipation
-------------------------------------------------  
In most parts of the world the traditional purpose of
co-operative mobilization is as relevant as ever: to
raise people to human dignity by the mutual self-help
character of co-operative organizations. This belongs to
the basic challenges for the co-operatives of the next
decades. The emancipatory character of the co-operative
way is crucial for the future, and the tasks are numerous.
  
5.2.    Humanistic economy
---------------------------------
In some parts of the existing co-operative organizations,
the urgent motives for such mobilization have weakened
because of basic changes in co-operative environments.
People have better conditions, at least in basic material
aspects. 
  
This is not to say that the emancipatory mission has been
completed. The essence of the great visions of humanistic
economy is still there; there are also needs within the
more modern societies to continually refine democratic
decision-making, to encourage responsibility and to
carefully consider those aspects of life which can not be
handled by the market or by bureaucrats and management.
In this way Co-operation might be looked upon as an
overall "pedagogic project" of generations to demonstrate
the potential of human mobilization and responsibility.
No other form of organization has the equivalent qualities.
  
6. Social responsibility
---------------------------  
All the basic co-operative values are permeated by
responsibility for the community as a whole in the
perspectives of social and economic justice (equity). The
motives behind the very formation of co-operatives, now
as before, have been to contribute to a better society at
large. Co-operatives are, by their basic constitutions,
organizations for this: people take the economy in their
own hands, take care of each other and search for ways to
embrace wider parts of the community. 
  
6.1.    Co-ops as economic organizations 
--------------------------------------------------  
In the future this basic constitution of co-operative
organizations should be reflected in the main areas of
co-operative policy as it has been in the past. As
economic organizations, co-operatives should be in the
forefront when it comes to producing and distributing
goods and services of high quality at low costs,
including such important quality aspects as those of
environmental protection, health and security.
Co-operative organizations should identify themselves as
a part of the market which people can always trust to
offer good, open and honest alternatives. 
  
Co-operative organizations should always be ready to take
more social responsibility for economic justice than the
marketplace currently demands. Co-operatives must always
try to be one step ahead. Certainly, there are limits for
co-operatives, especially in highly competitive modern
market economies, to do "more than others". However,
co-operatives can never allow themselves to become
passive prisoners of the markets and/or exploiters of the
markets for the maximum egoistic benefits to the existing
members. This would be only a `half-hearted' expression
of the co-operative way. Co-operative organizations should 
always be ready to act as `correctives', `supplements' and 
`alternatives', when the markets fail to satisfy the essential 
needs of the people.
  
6.2.    Co-ops as social organizations
--------------------------------------------  
It should not be thought, however, that co-operative
organizations have their only justifications as correctives 
of "market failures". Co-operative social responsibility 
implies more, co-operatives are basically correctives of 
"society's failures". As a consequence of that, co-operatives 
should develop their democratic and social character in order 
to demonstrate the co-operative way in practice, and should 
provide the necessary conditions to encourage the wider use 
of co-operative methods in society at large.
  
For the future, as before, the world needs co-operators
and co-operative organizations which are able to look
outside and above themselves in order to search for wider
co-operative contributions.
  
7. National and international co-operation
-------------------------------------------------  
The outlook for the future speaks about even more
internationalized methods of economizing. It has been
clearly demonstrated that efficient ways to approach more
of the needs of mankind - and to protect mankind from the
obvious overall dangers - will gain even more international 
and global dimensions. Co-operative organizations used to 
be in the forefront of internationalization, but are starting to 
lag behind. These are alarming tendencies and the world 
co-operative sector must improve its readiness to contribute 
in these contexts.
  
7.1.    Bridging conflicts between producers and consumers
-----------------------------------------------------------------------  
In this the co-operative organizations cannot let historical 
hostilities and different material interests prevent their 
collaborative and co-operative ambitions, nationally and 
internationally. There are conflicts, undoubtably, producer 
and consumer co-operative organizations serve opposite 
material interests. As producers, the members want to get 
good payment for their investment and work and, as 
consumers, the members want to buy goods and services 
as inexpensively as possible. These basic interests can never 
be combined in complete harmony. We should, however, 
improve our ambitions to identify common perspectives from 
a co-operative (value) point of view and the many opportunities 
to develop mutual supporting methods in spite of those 
conflicting material needs. 
  
Probably, these collaborating prospects are most important 
within the developing parts of the world, as the co-operative 
sector will diversify into more consumer-oriented co-operative 
organizations alongside the producer and credit-oriented 
co-operative organizations. Then, the opportunity is to apply
collaborating perspectives and structures, before the new
economy has been established. The same is true of the
Eastern European countries when it comes to establishing
the co-operative way for food production and distribution
in the years to come. New forms of collaborative structures 
will need to be developed - perhaps the multi-purpose 
co-operative solutions?
  
7.2.    The European Community
---------------------------------------  
Hopefully also, the immediate challenging prospects for
co-operation among co-operatives within the Common 
Market might encourage some new models and examples. 
The Common Market opens up new perspectives for 
co-operation across national borders, as more of the 
barriers disappear. At the same time, pressure has increased 
for constructive solutions in order to stand up against the big
enterprises. The on-going increasing activities are interesting 
among the European co-operatives, which might come closer 
to each other in various forms of collaboration, perhaps 
within a sector approach according to the "Economie sociale". 
Perhaps some `dreams' of joint ventures in co-operative 
production, distribution and financing can become reality and 
produce good prototypes for other parts of the world. 
  
7.3.    International countervailing power
-------------------------------------------------  
The challenge for "co-operation between co-operatives" is
ideological, intellectual and material. In order to strengthen 
the co-operative value prospects, the world co-operative 
sector must use the possibilities of international co-operation. 
In earlier periods we talked about co-operative organizations 
as "countervailing powers" in national contexts. Such national
countervailing powers need more of an international basis
to be effective in the future. Perhaps co-operative
organizations might become the international countervailing 
powers of the people. This presupposes co-operators, and 
above all co-operative leaders, who are able to look away 
from their old and current ideological and material conflicts  in 
order to identify themselves with common global perspectives.
  
There is a need for international co-operative statesmen!
There is nothing more depressing today than to listen to
co-operative leaders who refer to `realism' when speaking
in favour of the egoism of the material interests of groups 
of co-operative members and rejecting the common 
overall perspectives. 
  
7.4.    A co-operative sector in Co-operation
-----------------------------------------------------  
The world co-operative sector of between 500 and 700
million people must become more than a statistical concept. 
It must become an expression of what Co-operation basically 
stands for: co-operation between co-operators for mutual 
support, and co-operatives for common prospects of a better 
world. In these prospects co-operative organizations also 
need, more than ever, to collaborate with other democratic 
people's movements to pool the common ambitions and 
give the common people a voice in the shaping of the world.
  
8. Conclusions and recommendations
---------------------------------------------  
What are the basic values for the future? Is there a need
to change and/or to revise the traditional basic values?
  
This is the basic issue for the Tokyo Congress, and this
report requires me to make some recommendations as a
basis for discussion. I have approached this from various
perspectives. Finally, I have chosen to identify five
main perspective values  for the overall application of
the basic values for the future.  I have concluded that
the traditional values are still relevant for the future
although some of them might be more emphasized than
others.
  
In the global perspectives I have recommended that
co-operative organizations should identify themselves as
a part of society aiming to contribute to bettering
people's conditions by efficient applications of:
  
-  Economic activities for meeting needs
  
-  Participatory democracy
  
-  Human resource mobilization
  
-  Social responsibility
  
-  National and international co-operation.
  
I call these "basic global values". As demonstrated by
the experiences of recent decades these are relevant for
all parts of the world's co-operative sector, as well as
for the common global perspectives. As a whole these
should give the world co-operative movement a way to
improve its overall identity and to establish an overall
global profile. This identity might be made more clear in
terms of long-term policy programmes and by successive
evaluations.
  
It goes without saying that these values must be carried
out by co-operators and by co-operative organizations
characterized by a co-operative spirit; there must
continually be a commitment to search for the proper
applications of the values behind them. They must be
carried out within a management philosophy that is ready
to encourage such ethics as honesty, caring and
democratic attitude, social responsibility and
constructiveness. 
  
  
("The world seeks for a new social order where human 
beings will be able to enjoy a safer, more peaceful and 
happier life. Co-operatives, with around 700 million 
members accounting for over 10 percent of the world 
population, have a great potential for contributing to the
realization of a new world order. It is high time that we 
co-operators joined our hands together and carried out 
our Co-operative Movement by identifying co-operative 
values and their identities. In this sense, there has not
been so important a time as today. And, in this regard, 
the 30th ICA Congress scheduled for October 1992 in 
Tokyo will prove to be of great significance."
  
-Jirozaemon Saito, Chairman of the ICA Fisheries Committee)