Table of Contents

     ___________________________________________________
     This document has been made available in electronic 
    format by the International Co-operative Alliance ICA 
    -----------------------------------------------------
                         November 1995

                    ICA Studies and Reports
           Co-operatives in Eastern & Central Europe

                           Bulgaria
               by Professor Dinonysos Mavrogiannis


Table of Contents


1         Main Characteristics                            3
1.1       Brief history (1890-1944)                       4
1.1.1     Rural credit co-operatives                      4
1.1.2     Urban credit co-operatives (popular banks)      5
1.1.3     Consumer co-operatives                          5
1.1.4     Producers' and workers' co-operatives           7
1.1.5     Forestry co-operatives                          7
1.1.6     Agricultural production co-operatives           7
1.2       Co-operatives in the centrally-planned
          economy (1946-1989)                            11
1.2.1     Co-operative development                       12
1.2.1.1   Consumer co-operatives                         12
1.2.1.2   Agricultural production co-operatives
          (collective farms)                             14
1.2.1.3   Handicraft and workers' co-operatives          15
1.2.2     Assessment of the situation                    17


2         Transition to the Market Economy 
          (1989-1993)                                    20
2.1       Privatisation policy                           20
2.2       Co-operatives under restructuring and
          privatisation                                  28
2.2.1     Spontaneous restructuring                      29
2.2.2     Co-operative policy and legislation            32


3         Current Developments                           40
3.1       Intensification of co-operative restructuring  40
3.1.1     Co-operative property                          40
3.1.2     Membership relations                           44
3.1.3     Organisational changes and developmental
          trends                                         48
3.1.3.1   Consumer co-operatives                         48
3.1.3.2   Workers' production co-operatives              52
3.2       Emergence of new co-operative institutions     55
3.2.1     Agricultural co-operatives of primary farmers  55
3.2.2     The Central Co-operative Bank                  60
3.2.3     Department of Co-operative Management
          and Business                                   62

4         Conclusion                                     64
4.1       Main highlights                                65
4.2       Expectations                                   70
4.3       Perspectives of  further co-operative
          development                                    71


Annexes
Annex 1   Contact organisations                          76
Annex 2   The Main Laws and Decrees Concerning
          Co-operatives                                  79
Annex 3   Co-operative Law  of  1991 and amendments      81
Annex 4   Ordinance  192 of 1st October 1991 of the
          Council of Ministers                          111
Annex 5   Bibliography                                  115