University of Wisconsin Center for Cooperatives

Democracy in the Workplace References

Return to part 1 of the article
Return to part 2 of the article

Abell, R (1988). Establishing support systems for Industrial cooperatives: Case studies from the Third World London: Avebury.

Alinsky, S. D. (1971). Rules for radicals: A practical primer for realistic radicals. New York: Vintage.

Allen, B. J. (1995). "Diversity" and organizational communication. Journal of Appied Communication Research, 23, 143-155.

Alvesson, M. (1996). Communication, power, and organization. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Arterton, F. C. (1987). Teledemocracy: Can technology protect democracy? Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Aune, J. A. (1996, November). Inevitability and perversity: The loci of capitalist arguments about labor. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Speech Communication Association, San Diego, CA.

Bachrach, P & Botwinick, A. (1992). Power and empowerment: A radical theory of participatory democracy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Bahr, M. (1989). Mobilizing for the '90s. Labor Research Review, 14, 59-65.

Banks, A., & Metzgar, J. (1989). Participating in management: Union organizing on a new terrain. Chicago: Midwest Center for Labor Research.

Barber, B. R. (1984). Strong democracy. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Barker, J. R. (1993). Tightening the iron cage: Concertive control in self-managing teams Administrative Science Quarterly, 38, 408-437.

Barker, J. R., & Cheney, G. (1994). The concept and practices of discipline in contemporary organizational life. Communication Monographs, 61. 19-43.

Barker, J. R., & Tompkins, R K. (1994). Identification in the self-managing organization Characteristics of target and tenure. Human Communication Research, 21, 223-240.

Barry, D. (1991, Summer). Managing the bossless team: Lessons in distributed leadership. Organizational Dynamics. 20, 31 -47.

Batstone. E. (1983). Organization and orientation: A life cycle model of French cooperatives. Economic and Industrial Democracy. 4, 139-161.

Baudrillard, J. (1983). In the shadow of the silent majorities or the end of the social, and other essays. New York: Semiotext(e).

Hellah, R. N., Madsen. R., Sullivan, W. M., Swidler, A., & Tipton, S. M. (1985). Habits of the heart: Individualism and commitment in American life. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Benhabib. S. (Ed.). (1996). Democracy and difference: Contesting the boundaries of the political. Princeton. NJ: Princeton University Press.

Berggren, C. (1992). Alternatives to lean production: Work organization in the Swedish auto industry. Ithaca, NY: International Labor Relations Press.

Bernstein, P. (1976). Necessary elements for effective worker participation in decision making. Journal of Economic Issues, 10. 490-522.

Bluestone, B. (1989). Goodbye to the management rights clause. Labor Research Review 14, 66-72.

Bluestone, B., & Bluestone, l. (1992). Negotiating the future: A labor perspective on American business. New York: Basic Books.

Braverman, H. (1974). Labor and monopoly capital: The degradation of work in the twentieth century. New York: Monthly Review Press.

Brody, D. (1992, Winter). The breakdown of labor's social contract: Historical reflections, future prospects. Dissent, pp. 32-41.

Bullis, C. (1991). Communication practices as unobtrusive control: An observational study. Communication Studies, 42, 254-271.

Bullis, C.. & Bach, B. (1996). Feminism and the disenfranchised: Listening beyond the "other." In E. B. Ray (Ed.), Communication and disenfranchisement: Social health issues and implications (pp. 3-28). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Buraway, M. (1979). Manufacturing consent: Changes in the labor process under monopoly capitalism Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hurke, K. (1969). A rhetoric of motives. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Rums, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.

Buzzanell, P M. (1994). Gaining a voice: Feminist organizational communication theorizing. Management Communications Quarterly, 7, 339-383.

Chamberlain, N. (1951). Collective bargaining. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Cheney, C. (1995). Democracy in the workplace: Theory and practice from the perspective of communication. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 23, 167-200.

Cheney. G. (1997a). Managed democracy: The shape of employee participation in the consumer driven firm. Manuscript in preparation.

Cheney. G. (1997b). The many meanings of "solidarity": The negotiation of values in the Mondragon worker-cooperative complex under pressure. In B. D. Sypher (Ed.), Contemporary case studies in organizational communication (pp. 68-83). New York: Guilford.

Cheney. G.. & Brancato. J. (1993). Scientific management's rhetorical force and enduring impact. Unpublished manuscript, University of Colorado, Boulder.

Cheney. G.. & Carroll, C. E. (in press). The person as object in discourses in and around organizations. Communication Research.

Cheney, G.. & Christensen, L. T. (in press). Identity at issue: Linkages between "internal" and "external" organizational communication. In F. M. Jablin & L. L. Putnam (Eds.), The new handbook of organizational communication. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Clair, R. P (1993). The use of framing devices to sequester organizational narratives: Hegemony and harassment. Communication Monographs, 60, 114- 136.

Clay,E (1994, Spring). Neither democracy nor equity is sufficient for engagement. Participatory Communication Research Network Newsletter, pp. 1 -8.

Clegg, S. R. (1988). Frameworks of power London: Sage.

Clement, R. W. (1994). Culture, leadership, and power: The keys to organizational change. Business Horizons, 37, 33-39.

Cloud, D. (1996, November). Fighting for words: The limits of symbolic power in the Staley Lockout, 1993-1996. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Speech Communication Association, San Diego, CA.

Coleman, J. S. (1974). Power and the structure of society. New York: W. W. Norton.

Collins-Jarvis, L. (1997). Participation and consensus in collective action organizations. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 25, 1-16.

Commission on the Future of Worker-Management Relations. (1994, December). Report and recommendations. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor.

Conte, M. A. (1986, March-April). Participation and performance. Society, 23, 44-49.

Cooke, W. N. (1990). Factors influencing the effect of joint union-management programs on employee-supervisor relations. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 43, 587-603.

Cornforth, C. (1995). Patterns of cooperative movement: Beyond the degeneration thesis. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 16, 487-524.

Cotton, I. L. (1993). Employee involvement: Methods for improving performance and work; attitudes. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Crouch, C., & Heller, F. A. (Eds.). (1983). International yearbook of organizational democracy: Vol 1. Organizational democracy and political processes. Chichester, England: John Wiley.

Dachler, H. P., & Wilpert, B. (1978). Conceptual dimensions and boundaries of participation in organizations: A critical evaluation. Administrative Science Quarterly. 23, 1-39.

Dahl, R. A. (1961). Who governs? Democracy and power in the American city. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Dahl, R. A. (1985). A preface to economic democracy Berkeley: University of California Press.

Davis, E., & Lansbury, R. (Eds.). (1986). Democracy and control in the workplace. Melbourne: Longman.

Deetz, S. A. (1992). Democracy in an age of corporate colonization: Developments in communication and the politics of everyday life. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Deetz, S. A. (1995). Transforming communication, transforming business: building responsive and responsible workplaces. New York: Hampton.

Deming, W. E. (1986). Out of the crisis. Cambridge: MIT Center for Advanced Engineering Study.

Downton, J. V., & Wehr, P. E. (1991). Peace movements: The role of commitment and community in sustaining member participation. Research in Social Movements, Conflict. and Change, 13, 113-134.

Edwards, R. (1979). Contested terrain: The transformation of the workplace in the twentieth century. New York: Basic Books.

Edwards, R. (1981). The social relations of production at the point of production. In M. Zey-Ferrell & M. Aiken (Eds.), Complex organizations: Critical perspectives (pp. 152-181). Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.

Eisenberg, E. (1984). Ambiguity as strategy in organizational communication. Communication Monographs, 51, 227-242.

Elden, I. M. (1981). Political efficacy at work: The connection between more autonomous forms of workplace organization and more participatory politics. American Political Science Review, 75, 43-58.

Elkouri, F., & Elkouri, E. (1980). How arbitration works (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Bureau of National Affairs.

Ellerman, D. R (1992). Property and contract in economics: The democratic alternatives to capitalism and socialism. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Elshtain, J. B. (1995). Democracy on trial. New York: Basic Books.

Evered, R. D., & Selman, J. C. (1989, Autumn). Coaching and the art of management. Organizational Dynamics, 18, 16-32.

Ewing. D. (1977). Freedom inside the organization: Bringing civil liberties to the workplace. New York: Dutton.

Fairhurst, G. T., & Sarr, R. A. (1996). The art of framing. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Fairhurst, G. T., & Wendt, R. F. (1993). The gap in total quality. Management Communication Quarterly, 6, 441-451.

Fantasia, R., Clawson, D., & Graham, R. (1988). A critical view of worker participation in American industry. Work and Occupations, 15, 468-488.

Ferguson, K. (1984). The feminist case against bureaucracy Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Ferree. M. M., & Martin, P. Y. (Eds.). (1995). Feminist organizations: Harvest of the new women’s movement. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Foucault, M. (1984). The Foucault reader (P. Rabinow, Ed.). New York: Pantheon.

Freeman. R., & Medeff, J. (1984). What do unions do? New York: Basic Books.

Gamson. Z., & Levin. H. (1984). Obstacles to the survival of democratic workplaces. In R. Jackall & H. Levin (Eds.), Worker cooperatives in America (pp. 219-244). Berkeley: University of California Press.

Gardell. B. (1977). Autonomy and participation at work. Human Relations, 30, 515-533.

Garson, G. D, & Smith, M. P. (Eds.). (1976). Organizational democracy: Participation and self-management. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Giddens, A. (1984). The constitution of society: Outline of the theory of structuration. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Gillespie. R. (1991). Manufacturing knowledge: A history of the Hawthorne experiment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Glaser, H. (1994). Structure and struggle in egalitarian groups: Reframing the problems of time, emotion. and inequity as defining characteristics. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

Gorden. W. I. (1988). Range of employee voice. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, /. 283-299.

Gottfried. H.. & Weiss, P (1994). A compound feminist organization: Purdue University's Council on the Status of Women. Women and Politics, 14, 23-43.

Gould. C. (1988). Rethinking democracy: freedom and social cooperation politics, economy, and society Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Graham. L. (1993). Inside a Japanese transplant: A critical perspective. Work and Occupations, 20, 147-173.

Greenherg. E. (1986). Workplace democracy: The political effects of participation. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Greenwood, D. (1992). Industrial democracy as process: Participatory action research in the Fagor cooperative group of Mondragon. Van Gorcum, Netherlands: Swedish Center for Working Life.

Grenier. G. J. (19R R). Inhuman relations: Quality circles and anti-unionism in American industry. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Grimaldi. W.M.A. (1972). Studies in the philosophy of Aristotle's Rhetoric. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag.

Grunig. J. E. (Ed.). (1992). Excellence in public relations and communication management. Hillsdale. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Grunig. L A. (1943). lmage and symbolic leadership: Using focus group research to bridge the gaps. Journal of Public Relations Research, 5, 95-125.

Gustavsen.B.(1992) Dialogue and development. Stockholm: Swedish Center for Working Life.

Habermas. J (1989). The public sphere: An encyclopedia article. In S. E. Bronner & D. M. Kellner (Eds.), Critical Theory and Society: A reader ( pp. 136-142). New York: Routledge.

Hackman. J . & Oldham. G. (19R0). Work redesign. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Hansmann. H. (1990). When does worker ownership work? ESOPs, law firms, codetermination, and economic democracy. Yale Law Journal 99, 1749- 1816.

Harrison, T. M. (1992). Designing the post-bureaucratic organization: Toward egalitarian social structure. Australian Journal of Communication, 19, 14-29.

Harrison, T. M. (1994). Communication and interdependence in democratic organizations. In S. A. Deetz (Ed.), Communication yearbook 17 (pp. 247-274). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Haskins, W. A. (1996). Freedom of speech: Construct for creating a culture which empowers organizational members. Journal of Business Communication, 33. 85-97.

Hater, J. J., & Bass, B. M. (1988). Superiors' evaluation and subordinates' perceptions of transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Applied Psychlogy, 73. 695-702

Heekscher, C., & Donnellon, A. (Eds.). (1994). The post-bureaucratic organization: New perspectives on organizational change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hegstrom, T., & Kassing, J. (1996, November). Organizational democracy and democratic communication. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Speech Communication Association, San Diego, CA.

Herman, E. E., Kuhn, A., & Seeber, R. (1987). Collective bargaining and labor relations (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Herzberg, F. (1966). Work and thc nature of man. New York: World.

Hirokawn, R. Y., & Keyton, J. (1995). Perceived facilitators and inhibitors of effectiveness in organizational work teams. Management Communication Quarterly, A, 424-446.

Hirschman, A. O. (1970). Exit, voice, and loyalty: Responses to decline in firms, organizations, and states. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Huspek, M., & Kendall, K. E. (1991). On withholding political voice: An analysis of the political vocabulary of a "nonpolitical" speech community. Quarterly Journal of Speech. 77, 1 - 19.

Iannello, K. P (1992). Decisions without hierarchy: Feminist interventions in organization theory and practice. London: Routledge.

Jackson, S. E., & Associates. (Eds.). (1992). Diversity in the workplace: Human resources initiatives. New York: Guilford.

Kanter, R. M. (1982, Summer). Dilemmas of managing participation. Organizational Dynamics, 11, 5-27.

Kassing, J. (1996, November). A model of organizational dissent. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Speech Communication Association, San Diego, CA.

Katzenbach, J. R., & Smith, D. K. (1993). The wisdom of teams. New York: HarperCollins.

Kelley, M., &Harrison, B. (Bds.). (1991). Unions and economic competitiveness. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

Klingel, S. (1993). From revolution to evolution: Development of the social councils at Mondragon. Unpublished master's thesis, Cornell University.

Knights, D., & Willmott, H. C. (1987). Organizational culture as management strategy. International Studies of Management and Organization, 17, 40-63.

Kornbluh, H. (1984). Workplace democracy nod quality of worklife: Problems and prospects. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 473. 88-95.

Korten, D. (1995). When corporations rule the world. West Hartford, CT/San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler/Kumarian.

Kotter, J. P. (1995). Leading change: Why transformational efforts fail. Harvard Business Review, 73(4), 59-67.

Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (1987). The leadership challenge. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Krimerman, L., & Linclenfeld, F. (1992). When workers decide: Workplace democrary lakes root in America. Philadelphia: New Society.

Kuhn, T. (1996, November). A structurational perspective on alternative organizations Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Speech Communication Association, San Diego, CA

Kunda, C. (1992). Engineering culture: Control and commitment in a high-tech corporation. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Lammers, C. J., & .Szell, G. (1989). International handbook of participation in organizations VoI. 1. Organizational Democracy: Taking Stock. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Larson. C. E., & LaFasto, F. M. J. (1989). Teamwork: What must go right/what can go wrong. Newbury Park. CA: Sage.

Laufer. R., & Paradeise, C. (1990). Marketing democracy: Public opinion and media formation in democratic societies. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

Lawler. E. E.,III (1986). High-involvement management. Participative strategies for improving organizational performance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Lawler. E. E., III, Mohrman, S. A., & Ledford, G. E., Jr. (1995). Creating high-performance organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Lefort. C. (1988). Democracy and political theory (D. Macey, Trans.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Levering. R., & Moskowitz, Z. M. (1993). The 100 best companies to work for in America. New York: Doubleday/Currency.

Lewin. K. (1947). Frontiers in group dynamics: Concept, method, and reality in social science; social equilibria and social change. Human Relations, 1, 5-41.

Likert, R. (1961). New patterns of management. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Lichtenstein, N.. & Harris, H. J. (Eds.). (1993). Industrial democracy in America: The ambiguous promise. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lindenfeld, F, & Rothschild-Whitt, J. (Eds.). (1982). Workplace democracy and social change. Boston: Porter Sargent.

Locke. E. A.. & Schweiger, D. M. (1979). Participation in decision-making: One more look. In B. M. Slaw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 1, pp. 265-339). Greenwich, CT: JAI.

Lukes, S. (1974). Power: A radical view. London: Macmillan.

March. J. C., & Olsen, J. R (1995). Democratic governance. New York: Free Press.

Maguire, M., & Mohtar, L. R. (1994). Performance and the celebration of a subaltern counter-public. Text and Performance Quarterly. 14, 238-252.

Mandel, E. (1975). Self-management: Dangers and possibilities. International, 2(3), 3-9.

Mander, J., & Goldsmith, E. (Eds.). (1996). The case against the global economy: And a turn toward the local. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.

Mansbridge, J. (1973) Time, emotion, and inequality: Three problems of participatory groups. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 9, 351 -368.

Mansbridge, J. (1983). Beyond adversary democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Mantovani, C. (1994). Is computer-mediated communication intrinsically apt to enhance democracy in organizations? Human Relations, 47, 45-62.

Manz, C. C., & Angle, H. (1987). Can group self-management mean a loss of personal control? Triangulating a paradox. Group and Organization Studies, 11, 309-334.

Manz, C. C., & Sims, H. P, Jr. (1980). Self-management as a substitute for leadership: A social learning theory perspective. Academy of Management Review, 5, 361-367.

Manz. C. C.. & Sims, H. P., Jr. (1984). Searching for the unleader: Organizational member views on leading self-managed groups. Human Relations, 37, 409-424.

Manz, C. C.. & Sims, H. R, Jr. (1987). Leading workers to lead themselves: The external leadership of self-managing work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 32, 106- 128.

Markham. A. (1996). Designing discourse: A critical analysis of strategic ambiguity and workplace control. Management Communication Quarterly, 1, 389-421.

Marks. M. L., Hackett, J. E., Mirvis, P.H., & Grady, J. F, Jr. (1986). Employee participation in a quality circle program: Impact on quality of worklife, productivity, and absenteeism. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 61-69 .

Marshall. A. A., & Stohl, C. (1993). Participating as participation: A network approach. Communication Monographs, 60, 137- 157.

Martin. R Y. (1990). Rethinking feminist organizations. Gender & Society, 4, 182-206.

Mason. R. M. (1982). Participatory and workplace democracy: A theoretical development in the critique of liberalism. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

Mathews, J. A. (1989). Age of democracy: The politics of post-Fordism. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

McCloskey, D. N. (1985). The rhetoric of economics. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

McLagan, P. A., & Nel, C. (1995), The age of participation: New governance for the workplace and the world. San Francisco/Eugene, OR: Berrett-Koehler/Hulogosi.

McMillan, I. J., & Cheney, G. (1996). The student as consumer: Implications and limitations of a metaphor. Communication Education, 45, 1-15.

McPhee, R. D. (1985). Formal structure and organizational communication. In R. D. McPhee & R K. Tompkins (Eds.), Organizational communication: Traditional themes and new directions (pp. 149-178). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Mehan, H. (1987). Language and power in organizational process. Discourse Processes, 10, 291 -301.

Metzler, M. (1996, November). Organizations, democracy, and the public sphere: The effects of democratic (r)evolution at a nuclear weapons facility. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Speech Communication Association, San Diego, CA.

Michels, R. (1962). Political parties: A sociological study of the oligarchical tendencies of modern democracy (E. Paul & C. Paul, Trans.). New York: Collier.

Miller,K.l.,&Monge,P.R.(1986).Participation,satisfaction and productivity: A meta-analytic review. Academy of Management Journal, 29, 727-753.

Monge, P. R. (1995): Global network organizations. In R. Cesaria & P. Shockley-Zalabak (Eds.), Organization means communication (pp. 131-151). Rome: Sipi Editore.

Monge, P R., & Miller, K.I. (1988). Participative processes in organizations. In G. M. Goldhaber & G. A. Barnett (Eds.), Handbook of organizational communication (pp. 213-229). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Mulder, M., & Wilke, H. (1970). Participation and power equalization. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 5, 430-448.

Mulgan, G. J. (1991). Communication and control. New York: Guilford.

Mumby, D. K. (1988). Communication and power in organizations: Discourse, ideology, and domination. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Mumby, D. K. (1993). Feminism and the critique of organizational communication studies. In S. A. Deetz (Ed.), Communication yearbook 16 (pp. 155-166). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Mumby, D. K. (1997). Modernism, postmodernism, and communication studies: A rereading of an ongoing debate. Communication Theory, 7, 1-28.

Mumby, D. K. (in press). Power and organizational communication. In F. M. Jablin & L. L. Putnam (Eds.), The new handbook of organizational communication. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Mumby, D. K., & Putnam, L. L. (1992). The politics of emotion: A feminist reading of bounded rationality. Academy of Management Review, 17, 465-486.

Mumby, D. K., & Stohl, C. (1991). Power and discourse in organizational studies: Absence and the dialectic of control. Discourse and Society, 2, 313-332.

Mumby, D. K., & Stohl, C. (1996). Disciplining organizational communication studies. Management Communication Quarterly, 10, 50-72.

Naschold, F., Cole, R. E., Gustavsen, B., & van Beinum, H. (1993). Constructing the new industrial society. Van Gorcum, Netherlands: Swedish Center for Working Life.

Newman, K. (1980). Incipient bureaucracy: The development of hierachies in egalitarian organizations, In G. M. Britain & R. Cohen (Eds.), Hierarchy and society: Anthropological perspectives on bureaucracy (pp. 143-163). Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Values.

Obradovic, J. (1975). Workers' participation: Who participates? Industrial Relations, 14. 33-44.

O'Connor, E. S. (1995). Paradoxes of participation: Textual analysis of organizational change. Organization Studies, 16, 769-803.

Pacanowsky. M. (1988). Communication in the empowering organization. In J. A. Anderson (Ed.), Communication yearbook 11 (pp. 356-379). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Papa. M., Auwal, M. A., & Singhal, A. (1995). Dialectic of control and emancipation in organizing for social change: A multitheoretic study of the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. Communication Theory, 5, 189-223.

Pardo, M. (1995). Doing it for the kids: Mexican American community activists, border feminists? In M. M. Ferree & P. Y. Martin (Eds.), Feminist organizations: Harvest of the new women's movement (pp. 356-371). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Parker. M. (1985). Inside the circle: A union guide to QWL. Boston: South End.

Parker. M. (1993) Industrial relations myth and shop-floor reality: The "team concept" in thc auto industry. In N. Lichtenstein & H. J. Harris (Eds.), Industrial democracy in America: the ambiguous promise (pp. 249-274). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Parker, M.. & Slaughter, J. (1988). Choosing sides: Unions and the team concept. Boston: South End.

Parker. M., & Slaughter, J. (1989). Dealing with good management. Labor Research Review, 14, 73-79.

Parker. M., & Slaughter. J. (1994). Working smart: A union guide to participation programs and reengineering. Detroit, Ml: Labor Notes.

Pateman, C. (1970). Participation and democratic theory. London: Cambridge University Press.

Pearson. R. (1989). Business ethics as communication ethics: Public relations practice and the idea of dialogue. In C. H. Botan & V. Hazleton, Jr. (Eds.), Public relations theory (pp. 111 134). Hillsdale. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Phillips, K. R. (1996). The spaces of public dissension: Reconsidering the public sphere. Communication Monographs, 63, 231-248.

Plas. J. M. (1996). Person-centered leadership: An American approach to participatory management. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Powell, W. (1990). Neither market nor hierarchy: Network forms of organization. Research in Organizational Behavior, 12, 295-336.

Putnam. L. L., Phillips, N., & Chapman, P. (1996). Metaphors of communication and organization. In- S R. Clegg, C. Hardy, & W. Nord (Eds.), Handbook of organization studies (pp. 375-408). London: Sage.

Putnam, R. D. (1993). Making democracy work: Civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Putnam, R. D. (1995). Bowling alone: America's declining social capital. Journal of Democracy, 6. 65-76.

Ray. E. B. (Ed.). (1996). Communication and the disenfranchised: Social health issues and implications. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Redding. W. C. (1972). Communication in organizations. New York: Industrial Communication Council.

Remland. M. S. (1981). Developing leadership skills in nonverbal communication: A situational perspective. Journal of Business Communication, 18, 17-29.

Remland. M. S. (1984). Leadership impressions and nonverbal communication in a superior-subordinate interaction. Communication Quarterly, 32, 41-48.

Rheingold. H. (1993). Virtual community: Homesteading on the electric frontier Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Richmond. V. P., Wagner, J. R, & McCroskey, J. C. (1983). The impact of perceptions of leadership style, use of power, and conflict management style on organizational outcomes. Communication Quarterly: 31, 27-36.

Rifkin. J. (1995). The end of work. Los Angeles: Jeremy Tatcher/Putnam.

Rock. C. R. (1991). Workplace democracy in the United States. In J. D. Wisman (Ed.), Worker empowerment: The struggle far workplace democracy ( pp. 37-58). New York: Bootstrap.

Rodriguez, N. M. (1988). Transcending bureaucracy: Feminist politics at a shelter for battered women. Gender & Society, 2, 214-227.

Roethlisberger, F., & Diekson, W. (1939). Management and the worker New York: John Wiley

Rosen, C. M., Klein, K. J., & Young, K. M. (1986). Employee ownership in America: the equity solution. Lexington, MA: Lexington.

Rosner, M. (1984). A search for "coping strategies" or forecasts of cooperative "degeneration." Economic and Industrial Democracy, 5, 391-399.

Rothenburg, H.L., & Silverman, S. B. (1973). Labor unions: How to avert them, beat them, out-negotiate them, live with them, unload them. Elkins Park, PA: Management Relations.

Rothschild, J., & Whitt, J. A. (1986). The Cooperative workplace: Potentials and dilemmas of organizational democracy and participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rus, V. (1975).Influence structure in Yugoslav enterprise. Industrial Relations, 9, 148-160.

Russell, R. (1984). Using ownership to control: Making workers owners in the contemporary United States. Politics and Society, 13, 253-294.

Russell, R. (1985). Employee ownership. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Russell, R. (1996, November). Workplace democracy and organizational communication. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Speech Communication Association, San Diego, CA.

Russell, R., & Rus, V. (Eds.). (1991). International handbook of participation in organization: Val. 2. Ownership and participation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sashkin, M. (1984, Spring). Participative management is an ethical imperative. Organizational Dynamics. 12, 5-22.

Schiller, B. (1991). Workplace democracy: The dual roots of worker participation. In D. Hancock, J. Logue, & B. Schiller (Eds.), Managing modern capitalism: Industrial renewal and workplace democracy in the United States and Western Europe (pp. 109-120). New York: Praeger.

Schonberger, R. J. (1994). Human resources management lessons from a decade of total quality management and reengineering. California Management Review, 36(4), 109- 123.

Sclove, R. E. (1995). Democracy and technology New York: Guilford.

Scott, J. C. (1990). Domination and the arts of resistance: Hidden transcripts. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Seashore, S. (1954). Group cohesiveness in the industrial work group Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research.

Seibold, D. R. (1995). Developing the "team" in a team-managed organization: Group facilitation in a new-design plant. In L. Frey (Ed.), Innovations in group facilitation techniques: Case studies of applications in naturalistic settings (pp. 282-298). Creskill. NJ: Hampton.

Seibold, D. R., & Shea, B. C. (in press). Participation and decision making. In F M. Jablin & L. L. Putnam (Eds.), The new handbook of organizational communication. Thousand Oaks. CA: Sage.

Senge, R M. (1990). The leader's new work: Building learning organizations. Sloan Management Review, 32(1), 7 -23.

Sewell, G., & Wilkinson, B. (1992). "Someone to watch over me": Surveillance, discipline, and the just-in-lime labor process. Sociology, 26, 271 -289.

Sheeran, M. J. (1983). Beyond majority rule: Voteless decisions in the Religious Society of Friends. Philadelphia: Religious Society of Friends.

Simons, R. (1995). Control in an age of empowerment. Harvard Business Review, 73(4), 80-88

Sinelair, A. (1992). The tyranny of a team ideology. Organization Studies, 13, 611 -626.

Slaughter, J. (1983). Concessions—and how to beat them. Detroit, Ml: Labor Notes.

Smith, R. C. (1993, May). Images of organizational communication: Root metaphors of the organization-communication relationship. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Washington, DC.

Snyder, N. H., & Graves, M. (1994, January-February). Leadership and vision. Business Horizons, pp. 1-7.

Sproull, L., & Kiesler, S. (1991). Connections: New ways of working in the networked organization. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Stern. R. N., & McCarthy, S. (Eds.). (1986). The international yearbook of organizational democracy Vol. 1. The organizational practice of democracy. Chichester England: John Wiley.

Stewart. L. P. (1981). Whistleblowing: Implications for organizational communication. Journal of Communication. 30, 90- 101.

Stohl. C. (1986). Quality circles and changing patterns of communication. In M. L. McLaughlin (Ed }. Communication yearbook 9 (pp. 511-531). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Stohl. C. (1987). Bridging the parallel organization: A study of quality circle effectiveness. In M. L. McLaughlin (Ed.), Communication yearbook 10 (pp. 416-430). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Stohl, C. (1993). European managers' interpretations of participation. Human Communication Research. 20. 97-117.

Stohl, C. (1995a). Organizational communication: Connectedness in action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Stohl. C. (1995b). Paradoxes of employee participation. Unpublished research proposal, Purdue University.

Stohl, C., & Cheney, C. (1997). Paradoxes and contradictions of employee participation and workplace democracy. Manuscript in preparation, Purdue University and University of Montana.

StohI, C.. & Coombs, W. T. (1988). Cooperation or cooptation: An analysis of quality circle training manuals. Management Communication Quarterly, 2, 63-89.

Strauss. G. (1982). Workers' participation in management: An international perspective. Research in Organizational Behavior. 4, 173-265.

Stryjan, Y. (1989). Impossible organizations: Self-management and organizational reproduction. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

Stuart, P. (1993). Labor unions become business partners. Personnel Journal. 72(8), 54-63.

Swinney, D (1989) Broadening the area for participation and control. Labor Research Review, 14. 92-98.

Tannenhaum. A. S. (1983). Employee-owned companies. Research in Organizational Behavior, 5, 23S-268.

Tannenbaum, A. S. (1986). Controversies about control and democracy in organization. In R. N. Stern & S. McCarthy (Eds.), International yearbook of organizational democracy: Vol. 2. The organizational practice of democracy (pp. 279-303). Chichester, England: John Wiley.

Taylor, J. R. (1995). Shifting from a heteronomous to an autonomous worldview of organizational communication: Communication theory on the cusp. Communication Theory, 5, 1-35.

Thompson, R. (1991). The changing character of employee relations. Journal of Labor Research, 12, 320-336.

Thompson, V. A. (1961). Modern organization. New York: Knopf.

Tichy, N. M., & Ulrich, D. O. (1984). SMR Forum: The leadership challenge: A call for the transformational leader. Sloan Management Review, 26(1), 59-68.

Tompkins, P. K., & Cheney, G. (1985). Communication and unobtrusive control in contemporary organizations. In R. D. McPhee & P. K. Tompkins (Eds.), Organizational communication: Traditional themes and new directions (pp. 179-210). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Trist. E. L. (1963). Organizational choice: Capabilities of groups at the coal factory under changing technologies: The loss, re-discovery, and transformation of a work tradition. London: Tavistock.

Trist, E. L., & Banforth K. (1951). Some social and psychological consequences of the longwall method of coal getting. Human Relations, 4, 3-38.

Trist, E. L . Murray, 11., & Trist, B. (Eds.). (1993). The social engagement of social science: Vol. 2 The socio-technical perspective. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Tsiganou, H. (1991). Worker participative schemes: The experience of capitalist and plan-based societies. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

University of Piraeus. (Ed.). (1994). Participation, organizational effectiveness. and qualify of work life in the year 2000. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Walker, J. (1996, November). Embracing paradox as a means to democratization in organizations. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Speech Communication Association, San Diego, CA.

Warner, M. (1984). Organizational democracy: The history of an idea. In B. Wilpert & A. Sorge (Eds.), International yearbook of organizational democracy: Vol. 2. International perspectives on organizational democracy (pp. 5-21). New York: John Wiley.

Weber, M. (1978). Economy and society: An outline of interpretive sociology (Vols. I 2) (G. Roth & C. Wittich, Trans.). Berkeley: University of California Press.

Wendt, R. F. (1994). Learning to "walk the talk": A critical tale of the micropolitics at total quality university. Management Communication Quarterly, 8. 5-45.

Westenholz, A. (1991). Democracy as "organizational divorce" and how postmodern democracy is stifled by unity and majority. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 12, 173- 186.

Westenholz, A. (1993). Paradoxical thinking and change in the frames of reference. Organization Studies, 14, 37-58.

Whalen, S. (1997). Working for words: Rhetoric, interests and the eclipse of the contemporary American worker. Manuscript in preparation, University of Colorado, Boulder.

White, W. (1989). Value of joint programs underestimated. Labor Research Review, 14, 87-91.

Whitten, M. (1993). Narrative and the culture of obedience in the workplace. In D. K. Mumby (Ed.), Narrative and social control: Critical perspectives (pp. 97- 118). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Whyte, W. F., & Whyte, K. K. (1991). Making Mondragon: The growth and dynamics of the worker cooperative complex. Ithaca, NY: International Labor Relations Press.

Willis, R (1977). Learning to labor: How working-class kids get working-class jobs. New York: Columbia University Press.

Wilpert, B., & Sorge, A. (Eds.). (1984). International yearbook of organizational democracy: VoI. 2. International perspectives on organizational democracy Chichester, England: John Wiley.

Wisman, J. D. (Ed.). (1991). Worker empowerment: The struggle for workplace democracy. New York: Bootstrap.

Zorn, T. (1997). The uncooperative cooperative: Attempting to improve employee morale at Weaver Street Market. In B. D. Sypher (Ed.), Contemporary case studies in organizational communication (pp. 312-336). New York: Guilford.

Zuboff, S. (1988). In the age of the smart machine: The future of work and power New York: Basic.

 Return to UWCC Homepage