University of Wisconsin Center for Cooperatives

Cooperatives: A Tool for Community Economic Development



THIS SECTION lists a variety of printed resources for assistance in cooperative development.


Child Care Bibliography

Coontz, Kim E. "Best Kept Secrets: Co-op Preschool Models Need To Be Spread," Rural Cooperatives. Jan/Feb 1996, one page.
        Gives a brief history on childcare cooperatives.

"Co-op child care resources and models." One page. Explains PCPI and gives other resources.

DS Campaigns, "Create a neighborhood child-care cooperative," for what you can do for child-care. Online. Internet. Available: Four pages.
        Explains what Patricia McManus did to meet her childcare needs and she also wrote a guidebook.

National Consumer Cooperative Bank, Co-op Chronicles, "Parents Working Together." Co-op Bank Notes, Washington, DC 20009. February 1981, one page.
        Gives a background for Reston Children's Center and how the Co-op Bank helped them expand.

NCB, "The Starting Line." Online. Internet. Available: html. Three pages.
        Gives background for the Starting Line, a nonprofit child care center in Charlestown, Massachusetts, for low-income working families.

NCBA, "Co-op Development: Helping People Help Themselves, ChildCare Cooperatives Meet a Critical Need for Many Families." One page.
        Explains the increasing need for child care givers and also the three cooperative models.

NCBA, "Child Care Coops" from The Co-op Home Page-Child Care. Online. Internet. Available: http://www. Three pages.
        Discusses how to meet a variety of needs, explains all three models and gives resources.

Poe, David and John Madding, Iowa Care: How Rural Iowa Benefits from ChildCare Centers.  Five pages.
        Gives information on Harlan, Iowa childcare center and the resources it used I It also gives keys to success.

Wisconsin Federation of Cooperatives, "Co-ops an alternative to child-care needs." 1997 Number Two, one page.
        Explains Kids in the Kountry, a nonprofit childcare center in Shawano, Wisconsin. Kids in the Kountry is set up as a consortium model of cooperative childcare

Cooperative Development Bibliography

 "Building Blocks for Development Cooperatives: Partnerships for Economic Development." Saturday, June 14, 1997, St. Paul, Minnesota.
        A paper answering the question, "Cooperative fever in the Northern Plains--What is it? Why did it happen?"

Center For Rural Affairs. "The Social Mission of Farm Cooperatives: What should it be and How can it be realized." August, 1996, Page 3.
        An article in their newsletter, which addresses on family farms, membership, and overcoming barriers.

Cropp, Robert. University of Wisconsin Center for Cooperatives. "Cooperatives in Rural Development."
        A lecture outline explaining rural development and cooperative involvement.

Develtere, Patrick. Co-operation and Development, With Special Reference to the Experience of the Commonwealth Caribbean. Pages 73-77.
        Discusses the difference between cooperative sector and cooperative movement.

The Experiment in International Living. October, 1991, twelve pages.
        A booklet explaining the organization and their international projects.

Frederick, Donald A. "The ABCs of LLCs, Limited Liability Companies Offer New Option for Rural Businesses." Rural Cooperatives, July/August, 1997, pages 36-39.
        The article explains LLLs, their history, implications, and impact on Cooperative Development, and compares LLCs to other business forms.

Miller, Patricia. "Co-ops Doing Wonders For Main Street." Cooperative Partners, July/August. 1992, pages 10-11.
        The article discusses how cooperatives are revitalizing rural America. It gives and example of Dodge County Cooperative's Ponderosa restaurant.

National Cooperative Business Association. "Cooperative Development and its Economic Purposes." Online. World Wide Web. Available at Six pages
        Gives key components for economic development, also discusses urban development, and current centers.

Schrader, Lee F. Economic Justification. Pan 111 Economic Theory. Pages 121-135. The chapter explains theory behind choosing a cooperative.

Trector, Dave. "Diversification by Agricultural Cooperatives in Wisconsin." Twenty-three pages.
        A paper using empirical data to explain the diversification of agricultural cooperatives.

Cooperative History Bibliography

Parker, Florence Evelyn. The First 125 Years."A history of distributive and service cooperation in the United States, 1829-1954. "

United States Department of Agriculture, Farmer Cooperative Service. "Cooperative Facts," FCS information 108, June 1977. A chronological history of cooperation.

Zimbelman, Karen. "A Tour of Co-op History: Our Roots." The Oberlin Cooperator, Vol. 9, No. 2 (March 18, 1992). Pages 3-5.
        A short article describing the variety of economic reasons for cooperation, how they began, what were the first successful modern coops, and how cooperatives developed in the United States

Cooperative Introduction Bibliography

National Cooperative Bank. "NCB Co-op 100, America's Top 100 Co-op Companies." 1997, ten pages.
        A booklet that explains what cooperative are and how they function. It also has statistics on current cooperatives.

National Cooperative Business Institute. "Cooperatives Are..."
        A brochure by NCBI that explains cooperatives, their principles, history, what needs they serve, and who they benefit

United States Department of Agriculture, Rural Business and Cooperative Development Service. "What is a Cooperative?

Why Cooperatives are Organized." Cooperative Information Report 50, March 1995.
        A brochure explaining what a cooperative is, why they are organized, the basic principles, and the beginning steps.

Williamson Street Grocery Cooperative. "Willy Street Co-op Reader" Newsletter. October 1997, eleven pages.
        A newsletter that has a variety of information including cooperative facts for Wisconsin and the United States.

Disability/Home Care Bibliography

National Cooperative of Health Networks, "National Cooperative of Health Networks." Online. Internet. Available: Three pages.
        A large network of health care cooperatives, which is designed to help, also give resources.

Cooperative Home Care Associates
        Cooperative Home Care Associates, a for-profit worker-owned health care cooperative.

Feasibility Study

 Gumpert, David E. "How to Really Create a Successful Business Plan." Boston: Inc. Magazine Publishing, 1994. McLaughlin, Harold J., "Building Your Business Plan." New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1985. Osgood, William R. "Basic of Successful Business Planning." American Management Association, 1980.

Pope, Jeffrey L. "Practical Marketing Research." American Management Association. 1993. Siegel, Eric S., et al., "The Ernst & Young Business Plan Guide." New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.

Financial Bibliography

Ayres, Richard. "Spread Analysis." World Reporter. January 1989, pages 12-18.
        The article discusses good accounting and financial management .

 Beers, Scott and Margaret Lund. "Cooperative Finance." Online. Internet. Available at
        An article discussing why you should participate in regularfinance planning.

Cropp, Robert, University of Wisconsin Center for Cooperatives. "Co-op Financing Principles and Concepts." Lecture Materials, August, 1993.
        Provides a basic online for ffinancing a cooperative.

Estenson, Lee. "How A Banker Looks at Financial Leverage." Resource for Cooperative Development. Pages 28-29
        A brief arficle explaining the cost of capital, the business cycle influence, owner philosophy, and commitment, and the competitive advantage.

 Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City. "Financing Rural America." Online. Internet. Available at
        An article which discusses Rural America and its economic state.

Frederick, Donald A. and Ann Hoyt. "Capital Accumulation by Cooperatives: Traditional Methods of Acquiring Equity." Unpublished Paper.
        A paper discussing the various options for raising capital that a cooperative has.

 Knight, Henry. "Financial Strengthening." World Reporter. January 1989, pages 22-24.
        The article discusses the various financial policies the board of directors can choose from.

MasterCard International. The Small Business Financial Resource Guide. 1997 Braddock Communications, Inc. 134 pages.
        An excellent reference for a small business. It includes up to date information and refers you to individual state government agencies.

Mutti, R.J. "Doing Business Cooperatively."
        It addresses why cooperatives have been formed and various methods of financing.

Torgerson, Randall E. "Cooperative Finance Key Issue for the Remaining Decade." Farmer Cooperatives. October 1987.
        An article explaining basic equity capital sources, and the various alternative.

Housing Bibliography

Lanspery, Susan C. "Cooperative Partnerships for a Changing Population." 1997 Co-op Development Forum Proceedings, Chapter 10, pages 39-44. St. Paul, Minnesota, June 13-15, 1997.
        A reproduction of the speech she gave at the forum She discusses senior housing and various community partnerships.

National Cooperative Business Association. "Housing Co-ops." Online. Available at http://www.cooperative org/housing.htm. Three pages.
        A brief description of a housing cooperative and resources

Nitayangkul, Kim. "Assisted Senior Living in Rural Areas- The Coming Home Program." 1997 Co-op Development Forum Proceedings, Chapter 14, pages 63-67. St. Paul, Minnesota, June 13-15, 1997.
        Discusses assisted senior living, development costs, investment programs, low income housing tax credits, grants, and service costs.

Norberry, Laura Portz. "People Working Together to Help Each Other- Shared Management in Senior Housing Co-ops." 1997 Co-op Development Forum Proceedings. Chapter 15, pages 68-71. St. Paul, Minnesota, June 13-15, 1997.
        This portion addresses meeting the elderly's needs. It discusses a variety of shared management systems.

Reilly, John and Andrew Jermolowicz. "Home Remedy, Senior Housing Cooperatives Help Maintain Vitality of Rural Towns." Farmer Cooperatives, September 1994, pages 17-19.
        The article discusses the Homestead Housing Center and its road to existence.

Saegert, Susan. "Issues for Low-Income Housing Policy and Management: Results of Surveys and Case Studies in Brooklyn In Rem Housing." City University of New York Graduate School, December 11, 1996.
        Explains the purposes of the research, the methods, and the results.

Legal Bibliography

Baldwin, Van P. Center for Cooperatives, University of California. "A Legal Guide to Co-op Administration." Seventy pages.
        A reference to those who work with cooperative administration and the legalities encountered

Cooperative Development Center, "Cooperative Development Center." Online. Internet. Available:, four pages.
        Gives their purpose, services, contact name, critical organization steps, and "why incorporate"

Guenzel, Robert. "Liability of Directors." Original presented at the annual meeting of the Nebraska Cooperative Council, 1975, revised 1992. (Revised 1993)
        Discusses the directors' duties.

 "Legal Precautions for Cooperative Directors."
        A one-page handout without a source includes main points such as insurance.

Minnesota Association of Cooperatives, "Legal." Online. Internet. Available:, one page.
        States that there was a recodification of Minnesota's cooperative laws in 1993, you can download chapter 308A from this site.

Sippel, William L, "Marketing Agencies in Common, It Takes Two (or more) to Tango." Online. Internet. Available: Three pages.
        It discusses the antitrust immunity for marketing agencies in common.

United States. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Cooperative Service, "Cooperative Principles and Legal Foundations." Cooperative Information Report 1, Section 1, Issued 1977, Reprinted 1988, Reviewed and approved for reprinting July 1990.
        It gives basic features, objectives and structure, and legal foundations.

Membership Application for cooperatives, including a sample outline. From USDA Cooperative Information Report 7..
        A sample membership contract for a cooperative.

Bylaws for Cooperatives, including a sample outline.  From USDA Cooperative Information Report 7.
        A sample outline for bylaws for a cooperative.
Articles of Incorporation for Cooperatives, including a sample outline.  From USDA Cooperative Information Report 7.
        A fill in the blank sample of Articles of Incorporation.

Guidelines for Cooperative Bylaws -- developed by the University of Wisconsin Center for Cooperatives.
        Gives a list of twenty guidelines for cooperative bylaws.

New Generation ACADEMIC Bibliography
"Building Blocks for Development Cooperatives: Partnerships for Economic Development." St. Paul, Minnesota June, 1997**
        Discusses Models and Successes of New Gen. Coops wit/, William Patrie

Cobia, David. "New Generation Cooperatives: External Environment And Investor Characteristics." North Dakota State University. January, 1997
        Describes the story of the N.D. turnaround using New Cen. Coops. Also describes the external help received and the investor differences between New Gen. And traditional coops

Cook Michael and Tong, Leland. "Definition and Classification Issues in Analyzing Cooperative Organizational Forms." University of Missouri, Columbia
        Gives a survey that defines the characteristics of a New. Cen. Coop

Cook Michael and Hackman, Deanne. "The Transition to New Generation Organizational Forms: Public Policy Issues: University of Missouri, Columbia
        Discusses some legal issues facing New Cen. Coops. For example, does the current legal system hinder new types of organizational innovation?

Iowa Institute for Cooperatives. "Comparisons Of Traditional Versus Value-Added Cooperatives."
        Provides issue by issue comparisons of New Cen. and traditional Coops. Discusses such issues as Management, Formation, and Tax considerations
Fulton, Joan. "Evolution of Cooperative Thought, Theory, and Purpose: Reaction." Colorado State University. **
        Offers challenges and rewards to future New Cen. Coops. Also gives a brief origin to coop thought

Fulton, Murray Harris, Andrea and Stefanson, Brenda. "New Generation Cooperatives: Rebuilding Rural Economics." Centre for the Study of Cooperatives, University of Saskatchewan. September, 1995
        Provides a background and gives a number of case studies of New Cen. Coops

Fulton, Murray. "Some Observations on New Generation Cooperatives." University of Saskatchewan.
        Gives overview of pooling processes and the formation of New Cen. Coops

Kibbe, Theron. "Value-Adding Contract Cooperatives: Investor And Non-lnvestor Differences." North Dakota State University. November, 1996
        Gives a brief comparison between traditional and New Cen. Coops

Nilsson, Jerker. "The Coop Fever." ICA Review, Vol. 90 No. 1, 1997, pp. 32-38
        Provides a model for setting up a new Cen. Coop. Discusses issues like production, ownership, and management

"The Traditional versus the New Cooperative." Columbia Bank; for Cooperatives Newsletter.
        Compares New Cen. Principles to tradition practices

University of Saskatchewan Centre for the Study of Cooperatives. "New Generation Cooperatives for Agricultural Processing and Value Added Projects."
        Gives key attributes and distinguishing characteristics of New Gen. Coops
University of Wisconsin Center for Cooperatives. "New Generation Cooperatives: A Farm-Oriented, Value Added Approach to Rural Economic Development."
        Distinguishes between New Cen. Coops and traditional Coops

University of Wisconsin Center for Cooperatives. "The Precedent of New Generation Cooperatives." Briefly outlines Lee Egerstom's "Make No Small Plans... ".
        Points to reasons why New Cen. Coops have been successful and points out obstacles and pitfalls for other New Gen. Coops

University of Wisconsin Center for Cooperatives. "The Potential Role of Coops in Wisconsin Aquaculture Industry." 1997
        Identifies es New Cen. Coop characteristics and defines why they work

 University of Wisconsin Center for Cooperatives. "Summary of UWCC's New Generation Cooperative Conference." April, 1997
        Distinguishes New Cen. Coops from traditional coops and gives examples of New Cen. Coop successes like VALADCO

New Generation POPULAR Bibliography

 Alster, Norm. "Getting the middleman's share." Forbes Magazine. July, 1994
        Gives specific c examples of New Cen. Coops

Bostrom, Brent. "Potential Pitfalls for New Cooperatives."
        Provides 10 examples of what can go wrong in a new coop

Campell, Dan. "Coop Fever is Still Sizzling Across North Dakota; But Will the First Failure Cause it to Dissipate?" Farmer Cooperatives. August. 1995
        Outlines the successes of already established New gen. Coops like DCPC and NABC and also discusses the building of new coops in the area such as the Dakota Dairy Specialties

Campell, Dan. "The Golden Egg? Minnesota Coops Help Producers Adapt to Industrialized Agriculture." Farmer Cooperatives. October, 1995
        Gives successes in Minnesota and includes six major risks to new coops outlined by the St. Paul Bank for Cooperatives

 Campbell, Dan. "Show Me the Dough." Rural Cooperatives. May/June, 1997
        Discusses the success of another Pasta Coop in Colorado. Outlines how the coop began and how it learns from other New Gen Coop's mistakes.

"The Carrot and Stick." Farmer Cooperatives. August, 1995
        Interview with Bill Patrie, rural development director of North Dakota rural electric cooperatives and the man credited with beginning the new wave of coops

Crooks, Anthony. "Rounding the Corner? Coop Involvement in Ethanol Industry Grows Despite Uncertainty." Rural Cooperatives. July/August, 1997
        Shows another potential industry for New Cen. Coop development. Outlines the potential for growth in the Ethanol industry for cooperatives

Egerstrom, Lee. "A Wake-Up Call." Cooperative Partners. 1994
        Gives examples of New Cen. Coops

Johnson, Dennis. "Financing New Wave Cooperative Ventures"
        Offers steps to begin a New Gen Coop
Jorgensen, Nancy. "Traditional Principles Still Work for New Generation Cooperative." Rural Cooperatives Magazine. September/October, 1996
        Article on South Dakota Soybean Processors. New Cen. Coop.

"New Generation Cooperatives." Association of Cooperative Educators Newsletter. Fall, 1996
        Discusses the Question: What are the reasons for the New Cen. Coop Development

"New Generation of Cooperatives: The Next Chapter in Community Development." Year in Cooperation. Fall 1994. Vol. l No.1

Nilsson, Jerker. "New Generation Farmer Co-ops." Review of International Cooperation, Vol. 90 1997
        Provides an overview of New Gen. Models

Oukrop, Al. "Renville Coop Creates a Value Added Integrated Food System."
        Gives an example of a New Cen. Coop in Renville

Parsons, Carol. "Making Dust New Alliances Explore the Frontiers of Cooperation." Farmer Cooperatives Magazine. June, 1995.
        Gives specific examples of New Cen. Coops

Reilly, John and Reynolds, Bruce. "Furrow to Farrow: New Hog Technology Helps Local Cooperatives Add Value to Corn." Farmer Cooperatives. April, 1994
        Discusses ValAdCo's Organization, Operations, Capitalization and Financing. Also discusses some of ValAdCo's competition from Farmland and an Iowa coop called Farmers Cooperative Elevator Co.
"Sugarbeet Coop Pursues Value-Added Strategy." Farmer Cooperatives. April 1995.
        Outlines the construction, growth, and potential success of the American Crystal Sugar Company

Thyfault, Cindy. "New Generation Cooperatives: Getting Started On The Path To Success." Westar Trade Resources.
        Outlines "how-to" book to form a New Cen. Coop.

Torgerson, Randall. "Coop Fever: Cooperative Renaissance Blooming on Northern Plains". Farmer Cooperatives. September, 1994
        Discusses advantages and disadvantages to New Cen. Coops

"Wavemaker: A Conversation with Mark Hanson, a Key Player in Minnesota's New Wave Coop Movement." Farmer Cooperatives. October, 1995
        Interviews the attorney from SL Paul who has been working from the ground floor to set up New Cen. Coops in Minnesota and the Upper Midwest

 Wisconsin Federation of Cooperatives. "New Twist for Coops Brings New Hope to Midwest Economies." Challenge Newsletter. 1995
        Offers differences between Coops and provides examples of New Gen. Successes

Steps to Start Bibliography

DiMarcello, Carol. "ICA: Building Community Jobs by Replicating Model Worker Co-ops." Online. World Wide Web. Available at http://www.
        Article gives a brief description of how ICA helps out the worker cooperatives. It includes a five phase plan that it follows.

Henehan, Brian, Bruce L. Anderson, Timothy P. Pezzolesi, and Robert L. Campbell. "Putting Cooperation to Work: A Guidebook for Educators, Advisors, Consultants and Rural Economic Developers." Pages 65-76.
        Gives potential pitfalls, new cooperative tendencies, and various guidelines concerning management.

"How to Start a Cooperative." Pages 13-14. Author Unknown.
        Gives twelve detailed steps of how to start a cooperative.

Lawless, Greg. University of Wisconsin Center for Cooperatives. "Four Phases of Cooperative Development".
        The four phases include pre-development, feasibility study, business plan, and business start-up.

Michigan Alliance of Cooperatives, Cooperative Action, Summer 1997 page 6-7.
        Gives strategy that the Michigan Alliance and various others practice for Cooperative development.

National Cooperative Bank. "How to Organize a Cooperative."
        A brief pamphlet explaining what a cooperative is, types of cooperatives, getting started, and financing.

Patrie, Bill. "Critical Organization Steps-Cooperative Development."
        Gives four major steps in Cooperative Development.

"Phases of Co-op Development." Author Unknown.
        Gives the four phases as organizing, start-up, growth, and consolidation.
USDA, Rural Business and Cooperative Development Service, Understanding Cooperatives: How to Start a Cooperative, Cooperative Information Report 45, Section 14.
        Gives fourteen steps in organizing a cooperative. Steps include such things as determining economic need to important factors for success.

USDA, Rural Business/Cooperative Service, "How to Start a Cooperative," Cooperative Information Report 7.
        A detailed booklet explaining what a cooperative is, organizing steps, investment, membership, and genera/ rules for success.

Zimbelman, Karen. "How to Start a Marketing Co-op." Second Draft. June 29, 1995. An informational booklet on how to start a marketing coop.
        It includes sections on "making your co-op successful, steps to starting a marketing coop, and tips and hints for success.


Worker Bibliography

"Anarchy in Action?" Online. Internet. Available: Four pages.
        Discusses the Mondragon Co-operative Federation.

Artwood: a gallery of fine woodworking. Bellingham, Washington. Online. Internet. Available:
        A description of the Artwood Gallery and a brief history.

Cline, John G. "A Study of Worker-Owned Business Development.'' Online. Internet. Available:, seventeen pages.
        A report on the results of a study done on worker coop development in Nova Scotia.

ICA Group, Folder containing various articles about worker coops.

"Lonesome Traveller Publishing."

Nadeau, E.G and David J. Thompson. Cooperation Works. "Enterprising Businesses Owned by Their Employees." Lone Oak Press, LTD. pp. 51-62.
        Gives examples of various worker cooperatives in a variety of industries.

Network of Bay Area Worker Collectives. "Worker Cooperative Library." Online. Internet. Available:, eight pages.
        A listing of various publications on worker cooperatives

Network of Bay Area Worker Collectives. "Worker Coop Resource List." Online. Internet. Available:, three pages.
        A list of Internet, Financial, Cooperative Service Organizations Resources.

Ohio Employee Ownership Center, Kent State University, Publications list and order form.

"Union Cab of Madison Cooperative, Inc."

"The Many Meaning of 'solidarity': The Negotiation of Values in the Mondragon Worker-Cooperative Complex under Pressure."
        An excerpt from Case Studies in Organizational Communications 2: Perspectives on Contemporary Work Life, Edited by Betty Davenport Sypher, The Guildford Press, New York & London, 1997.

Cooperative Home Care Associates
        Cooperative Home Care Associates, a for-profit worker-owned health care cooperative.

 "Democracy in the Workplace: Theory and Practice from the Perspective of Communication." Journal of Applied Communications, vol. 23 (1995), pp. 167-200.  
        An essay that looks at a variety of issues related to the democracy in the work place. It uses the case of the Mondragon worker cooperatives.

US Federation of Worker Cooperatives
        Worker cooperatives and what they do.

Wales Co-operative Centre, "What is a Worker Co-operative?" html, two pages.
        Gives the description of a worker cooperative and a typical management structure.

 Whyte, William Foote and Kathleen King Whyte, Making Mondragon, The Growth and Dynamics of The Worker Cooperative Complex. Copyright 1991, ILR Press.

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